Legalized marijuana linked to lower opioid abuse; death rates
A new study analyzed more than 1.5 billion opioid prescriptions over eight years.
- A new study analyzed over 1.5 billion opioid prescriptions between 2011 and 2018.
- Researchers discovered opioid prescription reductions of 11.8 percent and 4.2 percent in states that passed recreational and medical cannabis laws.
- The U.S. government needs to reschedule cannabis because researchers believe it has therapeutic value.
Pain is important. It informs us of problems that need attention. Our biological pain system can go awry: some people don't feel any pain while others experience chronic pain with no evident cause. There's mental pain, which from a physiological perspective is no different than physical pain, which is why aspirin is sometimes used to treat emotional duress.
Our relationship to pain seems to become more problematic as societies acclimate to higher levels of comfort. The habit of pill-popping to counter any negative biological reaction is so engrained that we rarely question their chemical composition or long-term consequences. The shift from aspirin for minor aches and pains to the surge in opioid consumption signals a culture unwilling to deal with even the slightest discomfort.
Of course, there are good reasons for some opioid usage, but the scourge of addiction has hit us hard. Families across the nation have lost loved ones. Indeed, over a two-decade period, more than 700,000 Americans died from drug overdoses — the bulk of them opioid-related.
As I've written about previously, over a one-year period I was given access to 120 Oxycodone tablets for surgeries due to cancer and a meniscus tear. Both times I took one and discarded the bottle. Instead, I turned to cannabis for pain management, which was not only more effective but also did not leave me susceptible to addiction.
Could Cannabis Be A Solution To The Opioid Crisis?
I'm not alone. While there have been numerous reports about the benefits of cannabis for pain management instead of opioids, a new study, published on Dec. 14 in Journal of Health Economics, analyzed over 1.5 billion opioid prescriptions given between 2011 and 2018. The researchers confirmed the hype: states that legalize marijuana see sizable drops in opioid consumption.
Opioid prescriptions quadrupled between 2000–2015. As with the mental health industry and SSRIs scripts, pain management in recent years has relied on a money-making band-aid instead of actually treating the cause. It's much easier to write a prescription and send the patient on their way than to root out a diagnosis and plot out an extensive plan to help them overcome it. This trend also revitalized heroin consumption, which became a cheaper solution when pill bottles could not be found.
Enter the burgeoning field of cannabis science. As the researchers write,
"One policy option that has the potential to reduce opioid prescriptions and opioid-related deaths is the passage of cannabis access laws. These state laws facilitate access to cannabis by removing state legal barriers — though possession of cannabis remains illegal under federal law."
The researchers, from the University of Alabama School of Law and Vanderbilt University, list numerous studies confirming cannabis's efficacy in pain management, again calling into question why it remains listed as a Schedule 1 substance. Regardless, society is moving quicker than legislation. People want to feel better, not become beholden to a drug whose efficacy is clinically worse than marijuana.
Marijuana activists hold up a 51-foot inflatable joint during a rally at the U.S. Capitol to call on Congress pass cannabis reform legislation on Tuesday, Oct. 8, 2019.
Photo by Caroline Brehman/CQ-Roll Call, Inc via Getty Images
The team analyzed roughly 90 percent of all opioid scripts written over an eight-year period. They compare regional data with the passage of both Recreational Cannabis Laws (RCL) and Medical Cannabis Laws (MCL), discovering prescription reductions of 11.8 percent and 4.2 percent, respectively. When people are given the option, they are more likely to go with the proven track record of marijuana. The team concludes,
"The evidence reported here presents the most accurate picture of the effect of cannabis access laws on prescription opioid use to date and can therefore inform the ongoing state and national debates over the legality of cannabis as well as other policy options to combat the opioid epidemic."
Pain affects aging populations more, and so the researchers looked into RCLs and MCLs affecting Medicare and Medicaid rates. If all states passed MCLs in 2014, Medicaid savings would have been over $1 billion. They also found, as has been widely reported, states that pass MCLs and RCLs experience lower mortality rates from opioid overdoses.
There is an ongoing debate about whether you can become addicted to cannabis or just dependent, yet one thing is clear: marijuana is not nearly as dangerous as opioids. Pain management is a discussion the medical industry needs to have with their patients. Avoiding pain at any cost is not worth it. For those suffering from pain, there is at least one viable solution. Our government needs to recognize this fact and change the scheduling, while doctors have to honor science instead of lobbying and marketing efforts by pharmaceutical companies.
- Legalizing Marijuana May End the Opioid Crisis, Say Scientists - Big ... ›
- Opioid deaths surge as pandemic spreads across U.S. - Big Think ›
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Whether or not women think beards are sexy has to do with "moral disgust"
- A new study found that women perceive men with facial hair to be more attractive as well as physically and socially dominant.
- Women tend to associate more masculine faces with physical strength, social assertiveness, and formidability.
- Women who display higher levels of "moral disgust," or feelings of repugnance toward taboo behaviors, are more likely to prefer hairy faces.
Beards and perceptions of masculinity<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMjU5OTg0MC9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY0NzkxMjM3N30.cH-GqNwP5GVqvstgJWAhBPn1B_lYpVEAI0I7iax7EQw/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=0%2C1900%2C0%2C849&height=700" id="caae6" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="cb0a355a4e8e1899789bc45f3f7aef56" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
Photo Credit: Wikimedia<p>The study used 919 American (mostly white) women ages 18-70 who rated 30 pictures of men they were shown with various stages of facial hair growth. The photographs depicted men with faces that had been digitally altered to look more feminine or more masculine, with a beard and without a beard. The women rated the men according to perceived attractiveness for long-term and short-term relationships. The study found that the more facial hair the men had, the higher the men were rated on their attractiveness, particularly for their suitability for a long-term relationship.</p><p>Part of this might be attributed to facial masculinity — i.e. protruding brow ridge, wide cheekbones, thick jawline, and deeply set narrow eyes — which conveys information to a woman about a man's underlying health and formidability. Women tend to associate more masculine faces with physical strength and social assertiveness. It can also indicate a man with a superior immune response. The researchers suggested that their findings favoring bearded men could be due to the fact that facial hair enhances the masculine facial features on a man's face, like creating the illusion of a thicker jaw line. This could communicate direct benefits to women like resources and protection that would enhance survival among mothers and their infants. In other words, while a beard doesn't mean superior genetics in and of itself, it might be a primitive, ornamental way of saying, "Hey girl, I'm a testosterone-fueled lean, mean, pathogen fighting machine." <br></p><p>It could also be that a beard becomes its own destiny. The researchers in this study cite prior research that found that by growing a beard, men felt more masculine and had higher levels of serum testosterone, which was linked to a higher level of social dominance. They also tended to subscribe to more old-school beliefs about gender roles in their relationships with women as compared to men with clean-shaven faces.<span></span><br></p>
What does disgust have to do with beard preference?<p>Obviously, not all women dig beards. The researchers were particularly interested in what traits make a women prefer bearded men over clean-shaven faces. They looked into several factors including a woman's disgust levels on various concepts, her desire to become pregnant, and her exposure to facial hair in her personal life. </p><p>According to the study, women who were not into facial hair were turned-off by potential parasites or other critters they imagined could be in the hair or skin. Women ranking high on this "ectoparasite disgust" scale might have viewed beards as a sign of poor grooming habits. However, women who ranked higher in levels of "pathogen" did find the bearded men to be desirable, possibly because they perceived beards as a signal of good health and immune function. An intriguing discovery in the study was links to morality. Women who displayed higher levels of "moral disgust," or feelings of repugnance toward taboo behaviors, were more likely to prefer hairy faces. The authors opined that this could reflect a link between beardedness, politically conservative outlooks, and traditional views regarding performances of masculinity in heterosexual relationships.</p>
Additional findings<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMjU5OTg1My9vcmlnaW4uZ2lmIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYyNDI1NjUyOX0.P9B8WbmJR0q4nfzYZKbuNSA-2SAigVWJgrQE-_Gxlds/img.gif?width=980" id="49143" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="2ed3b1d6f20fc170bf2974646e565e8d" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />Giphy<p>The correlations that existed between married and single women's rating on the attractiveness of beards were not particularly clear, although the researchers noted that single and married women who wanted children tended to find beards more attractive than the women who didn't want children. They also found that women with bearded husbands found beards to be more attractive, which might indicate that social exposure to beards influences how desirable they are perceived of as being. Or it could be that men with wives who like beards grow beards.</p><p>It's important to note that culture plays a huge role in how attractive women perceive certain male characteristics as being. This study looked at a small, culturally specific group of American women, so no big, universal claims should be made about masculinity, facial hair, and male desirability to women. However, research like this is important in highlighting how human grooming decisions are driven by much more than fashion trends. Sociobiological, economic, and ecological factors all play a part in the way we choose to present ourselves.</p>
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