7 amazing inventions discovered by mistake

Eureka!

7 amazing inventions discovered by mistake
  • Some of these things have been around for nearly 200 years.
  • All were "discovered" by accident.
  • The term "Eureka!" actually became the state motto of California during the gold rush.

There are times when a researcher, scientist, or just a common, everyday tinkerer accidentally makes something that wasn't quite what she or he had in mind, but ends up leading to an invention that becomes ubiquitous across the world.

Here are seven "fortunate accidents" in science and the iconic items that came out because of them:

1. The Pacemaker

An artificial pacemaker (serial number 1723182) from St. Jude Medical, with electrode. Image source: Wikimedia Commons

"I'm beginning to think I may not change the world, but I'm still trying," Wilson Greatbatch, Inventor, 2007.

In fact, Mr. Greatbatch had indeed changed the world, after having invented a device by mistake that would save the lives of millions of people.

He'd been working on a device to record the rhythm of a human heartbeat. In 1956, as he was trying to finish the circuit where he worked at the University of Buffalo as an assistant professor, he accidentally grabbed the wrong sized resistor and used it instead. This was one of those "fortuitous" accidents, as it turned out. The intermittent electrical impulses that the device created because of that final resistor were very much like the sounds of a human heartbeat.

Seeing the value of such a device, he immediately set to work trying to make it small enough to fit inside a human. There were other research labs doing the same, so he worked urgently to get it done — documented in the book he wrote about the experience, The Making of the Pacemaker. His 2-inch device was debuted in testing on dogs in 1958 at the Buffalo Veterans Administration, and eventually, his device was licensed by Medtronic, and the rest, as they say, is history.

Greatbatch, seeing the biggest limitation of his pacemaker device hinge on the 2-year battery life, later acquired the rights to a lithium iodide battery, which would make his design last 10 years or more, and he redesigned it — the original version was potentially "explosive" — and later, his redesigned battery was adapted in countless medical devices, and still is.

2. Corn Flakes

Close-up, Corn Flakes cereal. Image source: Flickr user Marko Verch

The Kellogg brothers — John and Will — both worked in a Battle Creek, Michigan, sanitarium (what they used to call long-term care). In fact, John was physician-in-chief.

Their religion, Seventh-Day Adventist, preached vegetarianism and avoidance of alcohol as central concepts; as such, the Kellogg brothers sought to find ways to help patients through nutrition.

That's why they had some dough on hand one day, made up of whole wheat, and accidentally let it dry too much. When that dried mixture was in the process of being flattened, it separated into pieces, or flakes. Like they always did with their doughs and bread mixtures, they heated that in an oven to see what would happen.

Voilà!

A few years later, the base was changed to corn from wheat, and Corn Flakes were born.

3. Microwave Ovens

Man in wheelchair preparing to use microwave. Image source: PublicDomainFiles.com

Since they were accidentally invented in about 1945 these devices have changed the way we live.

(Flashback to my college days... after chugging down too many beers at the local bar where bodies were squeezed into tiny spaces and conversations were always shouted into ears, we'd always hit the 7-Eleven and get cheaply-made microwaved burritos. They didn't suck. Good times.)

But I digress.

Percy L. Spencer, widely known as an electronics genius after his stint in the Navy in WWI, was working for Raytheon in 1939, and his ideas and knowledge about radar helped the company win a government contract to develop the new technology and deploy it as "combat radar." Especially as WWII was on the horizon, this was actually the second highest priority project for the military only after the Manhattan Project.

Radar arrays use magnetrons — invisible, super-energetic, short-wavelength radio waves that travel at the speed of light — to function, and while testing radar equipment that had such, Spencer felt a strange sensation in his pants.

Specifically, a chocolate bar had melted when exposed to the waves created. He tested other foods, and when he discovered that the waves could pop popcorn all on their own, that was it.

Being the smart man he was, he quickly figured out how to create, patent, and then bring to market his invention. They began life as very large and costly devices, only being used on ships, trains, and in some restaurants; it wasn't until 1967 that the first commercial microwave was made successfully for home use.

The rest is... convenient and delicious.

4. Recreational LSD —  Lysergic Acid Diethylamide

Alice In Wonderland, tripping heavily.

From Dazed.com, "Your Guide To A Safe Acid Trip"

On November 16, 1938, Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann was attempting to create an analeptic compound to help people coming out of anesthesia, which also could potentially help premature infants keep breathing properly.

To get there, he attempted to combine the stimulant diethylamide with lysergic acid. Having failed, the experiment was set aside for 5 years.

The next time he returned to it on April 16, 1943. After creating the combination of the two, he accidentally ingested some, probably from a careless fingertip. He described the resultant sensations as being in his journal:

"... affected by a remarkable restlessness, combined with a slight dizziness. At home I lay down and sank into a not unpleasant intoxicated-like condition, characterized by an extremely stimulated imagination. In a dreamlike state, with eyes closed (I found the daylight to be unpleasantly glaring), I perceived an uninterrupted stream of fantastic pictures, extraordinary shapes with intense, kaleidoscopic play of colors. After some two hours this condition faded away."

Three days later, he dosed himself for an experiment with 250 micrograms of the material, in what forever will be known as Bicycle Day because the trip began while he was riding a bike home. He then freaked out, thought he was dying, summoned a doctor — who, shaking his head after hearing what he'd done, told him he couldn't help him — and then Hofmann finally settled in for a really pleasant trip and felt wonderful the next day. Also from his journal:

"I could begin to enjoy the unprecedented colors and plays of shapes that persisted behind my closed eyes. Kaleidoscopic, fantastic images surged in on me, alternating, variegated, opening and then closing themselves in circles and spirals, exploding in colored fountains, rearranging and hybridizing themselves in constant flux. It was particularly remarkable how every acoustic perception, such as the sound of a door handle or a passing automobile, became transformed into optical perceptions. Every sound generated a vividly changing image, with its own consistent form and color."

5. Kevlar

Helmet that saved an officer involved in the Pulse nightclub shooting, Orlando FL, 2016. Image source: Wikimedia Commons

Up until the fairly recent past, many inventions — both accidental and purposeful — created by women were stolen. That, or the role women played in the thing's creation was downplayed into oblivion.

Not so with Stephanie Kwolek, a chemist at DuPont. In 1965, after being asked by DuPont to create the "next generation" of fibers, she began attempting to create a material that would form stronger, lighter tires for use on vehicles.

She came across something that was lightweight, yet 5 times the strength of steel, and eventually, went on to create Kevlar.

The fibers have saved countless lives since then, in law enforcement, the military, and other places. And variations of it have gone on to be used for suspension bridges, to surround the underground fiber optic internet cables that connect the world, and so many other innovative projects.

Women in Chemistry: Stephanie Kwolek

6. Penicillin

Penicillin chemical illustration

Pixabay

Life before penicillin was much more brutal, deadly, and painful. Everything from pneumonia to rheumatic fever to gonorrhea all the way to blood infections and simple cuts that would lead to gangrene.

In 1928, penicillin was discovered — by Sir Alexander Fleming, a chemist and inventor who was, ironically, trying to create a miracle drug. The petri dish that the first discovered penicillin mold grew in was in a dish that had been left uncovered after other experiments had taken place using Staphylococcus aureus bacterium.

What he found was a ring of mold growth that had apparently killed the staph bacterium. Isolating the new discovery, however, and producing it in mass quantities, took until 1939, just before World War II.

7. Potato Chips

The box that eventually became standard. From OriginalSaratogaChips.com

There are a few different accounts of how potato chips were invented. There are even references to similar edible delights in cookbooks going back to the early 1800s.

But they became popular in upstate New York, near a town called Saratoga Springs, beginning in 1853.

A famous cook at Moons Lake House, George Speck, eventually to be known as George Crum, is said to have invented them one evening when a wealthy patron sent back the mushy slices of potatoes that he first made in exchange for something thinner cut. When the patron sent them back again, Crum sliced them incredibly thin and then fried them in oil and sprinkled salt on them afterward.

The gentleman love them and ordered more. Seven years later, "Saratoga Chips" were all the rage at both that restaurant and the new restaurant that George Crum founded, appropriately named Crums. He would serve them in boxes, and allow guests to take them homes as well.

George's sister, Katie Wicks, claimed after he passed that she was the one that invented them, from accidentally knocking a thin slice of potato into the deep fryer and then trying it out.

Whichever you believe, this accidental invention soon became the top-selling snack of all time across the United States.

A landslide is imminent and so is its tsunami

An open letter predicts that a massive wall of rock is about to plunge into Barry Arm Fjord in Alaska.

Image source: Christian Zimmerman/USGS/Big Think
Surprising Science
  • A remote area visited by tourists and cruises, and home to fishing villages, is about to be visited by a devastating tsunami.
  • A wall of rock exposed by a receding glacier is about crash into the waters below.
  • Glaciers hold such areas together — and when they're gone, bad stuff can be left behind.

The Barry Glacier gives its name to Alaska's Barry Arm Fjord, and a new open letter forecasts trouble ahead.

Thanks to global warming, the glacier has been retreating, so far removing two-thirds of its support for a steep mile-long slope, or scarp, containing perhaps 500 million cubic meters of material. (Think the Hoover Dam times several hundred.) The slope has been moving slowly since 1957, but scientists say it's become an avalanche waiting to happen, maybe within the next year, and likely within 20. When it does come crashing down into the fjord, it could set in motion a frightening tsunami overwhelming the fjord's normally peaceful waters .

"It could happen anytime, but the risk just goes way up as this glacier recedes," says hydrologist Anna Liljedahl of Woods Hole, one of the signatories to the letter.

The Barry Arm Fjord

Camping on the fjord's Black Sand Beach

Image source: Matt Zimmerman

The Barry Arm Fjord is a stretch of water between the Harriman Fjord and the Port Wills Fjord, located at the northwest corner of the well-known Prince William Sound. It's a beautiful area, home to a few hundred people supporting the local fishing industry, and it's also a popular destination for tourists — its Black Sand Beach is one of Alaska's most scenic — and cruise ships.

Not Alaska’s first watery rodeo, but likely the biggest

Image source: whrc.org

There have been at least two similar events in the state's recent history, though not on such a massive scale. On July 9, 1958, an earthquake nearby caused 40 million cubic yards of rock to suddenly slide 2,000 feet down into Lituya Bay, producing a tsunami whose peak waves reportedly reached 1,720 feet in height. By the time the wall of water reached the mouth of the bay, it was still 75 feet high. At Taan Fjord in 2015, a landslide caused a tsunami that crested at 600 feet. Both of these events thankfully occurred in sparsely populated areas, so few fatalities occurred.

The Barry Arm event will be larger than either of these by far.

"This is an enormous slope — the mass that could fail weighs over a billion tonnes," said geologist Dave Petley, speaking to Earther. "The internal structure of that rock mass, which will determine whether it collapses, is very complex. At the moment we don't know enough about it to be able to forecast its future behavior."

Outside of Alaska, on the west coast of Greenland, a landslide-produced tsunami towered 300 feet high, obliterating a fishing village in its path.

What the letter predicts for Barry Arm Fjord

Moving slowly at first...

Image source: whrc.org

"The effects would be especially severe near where the landslide enters the water at the head of Barry Arm. Additionally, areas of shallow water, or low-lying land near the shore, would be in danger even further from the source. A minor failure may not produce significant impacts beyond the inner parts of the fiord, while a complete failure could be destructive throughout Barry Arm, Harriman Fiord, and parts of Port Wells. Our initial results show complex impacts further from the landslide than Barry Arm, with over 30 foot waves in some distant bays, including Whittier."

The discovery of the impeding landslide began with an observation by the sister of geologist Hig Higman of Ground Truth, an organization in Seldovia, Alaska. Artist Valisa Higman was vacationing in the area and sent her brother some photos of worrying fractures she noticed in the slope, taken while she was on a boat cruising the fjord.

Higman confirmed his sister's hunch via available satellite imagery and, digging deeper, found that between 2009 and 2015 the slope had moved 600 feet downhill, leaving a prominent scar.

Ohio State's Chunli Dai unearthed a connection between the movement and the receding of the Barry Glacier. Comparison of the Barry Arm slope with other similar areas, combined with computer modeling of the possible resulting tsunamis, led to the publication of the group's letter.

While the full group of signatories from 14 organizations and institutions has only been working on the situation for a month, the implications were immediately clear. The signers include experts from Ohio State University, the University of Southern California, and the Anchorage and Fairbanks campuses of the University of Alaska.

Once informed of the open letter's contents, the Alaska's Department of Natural Resources immediately released a warning that "an increasingly likely landslide could generate a wave with devastating effects on fishermen and recreationalists."

How do you prepare for something like this?

Image source: whrc.org

The obvious question is what can be done to prepare for the landslide and tsunami? For one thing, there's more to understand about the upcoming event, and the researchers lay out their plan in the letter:

"To inform and refine hazard mitigation efforts, we would like to pursue several lines of investigation: Detect changes in the slope that might forewarn of a landslide, better understand what could trigger a landslide, and refine tsunami model projections. By mapping the landslide and nearby terrain, both above and below sea level, we can more accurately determine the basic physical dimensions of the landslide. This can be paired with GPS and seismic measurements made over time to see how the slope responds to changes in the glacier and to events like rainstorms and earthquakes. Field and satellite data can support near-real time hazard monitoring, while computer models of landslide and tsunami scenarios can help identify specific places that are most at risk."

In the letter, the authors reached out to those living in and visiting the area, asking, "What specific questions are most important to you?" and "What could be done to reduce the danger to people who want to visit or work in Barry Arm?" They also invited locals to let them know about any changes, including even small rock-falls and landslides.

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