2 reasons why mothers far outnumbered fathers in human history

Surprising studies revealed why mothers affected the genetic pool more than fathers.

Credit: Pixabay
  • Studies showed that in human history, mothers often outnumbered fathers.
  • This happened because of polygyny and migration patterns.
  • Modern ratio of mothers to fathers is closer to 1 to 1.

In the course of human history, have there been more mothers or fathers? By the basic logic of it, there should be as many of one as the other. But there's nothing basic about about how humans procreate, pulling their kind forward through the eons by hook or crook. It turns out, there have been significantly more mothers than fathers. A profound fact to ponder as Mother's Day comes around. Women have made a much larger genetic contribution to the world's population than men.

Certainly now the ratio is much more equal but over time it was often not so. A fascinating DNA study in 2014 found that polygyny, the practice of one man having many wives, was partially responsible for why moms outnumber dads if you look at the human population growth as a whole. Another big reason - migration patterns which often had wives leaving their towns to move in with their husbands, making females travel more. This practice would, in turn, widely spread female mitochondrial DNA, while lowering genetic variation among populations.

Study researcher Mark Stoneking, a professor of biological anthropology at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, attributed historical practices of human societies the responsibility for the phenomenon.

"Imagine a population of 100 females and 100 males," said Stoneking to the Guardian. "If all the females but only one of the males reproduced, then while the males and females contribute 50:50 to the next generation, the male contribution is all from just one male."

His team's genetic analysis looked to compare the paternally-inherited Y chromosome with maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA in samples from 623 males from 51 different populations around the world. This allowed the researchers to paint an interesting picture of human genetic migrations.

The patterns weren't the same geographically – there were stronger genetic differences for paternal than for maternal DNA in people from East Asia and Europe, pointing to higher levels of female migration. In populations from the Americas, Oceania and Africa, larger differences for maternal DNA than for paternal were found, suggesting that fewer males reproduced.

You can check out their study in Investigative Genetics.

In another proof of the effects of polygyny on human genetics, a 2015 study found that about 8,000 years ago, 17 women were reproducing for every one man. How could that happen? "It wasn't like there was a mass death of males," explained Melissa Wilson Sayres, a computational biologist at Arizona State University who was involved in that study.

According to Dr. Toomas Kivisild, a biological anthropologist on the team, the reason for the discrepancy lies in periods of human history when few men were able to accumulate so much wealth and power that they would essentially be able to prevent other less successful men from reproducing. And this wealth and power would be passed on to the sons of these men, ensuring the continual survival of their genetic lineage.

Why ‘mom guilt’ is an unreasonable term

American education: It’s colleges, not college students, that are failing

Who is to blame for the U.S.'s dismal college graduation rate? "Radical" educator Dennis Littky has a hunch.

Percentage of college student dropouts by age at enrollment: 2-year and 4-year institutions

Sponsored by Charles Koch Foundation
  • COVID-19 has magnified the challenges that underserved communities face with regard to higher education, such as widening social inequality and sky-high tuition.
  • At College Unbound, where I am president, we get to know students individually to understand what motivates them, so they can build a curriculum based on goals they want to achieve.
  • My teaching mantra: Everything is permitted during COVID-19. Everything is permitted during COVID-19. Everything is permitted during COVID-19.
Keep reading Show less

The mystery of the Bermuda Triangle may finally be solved

Meteorologists propose a stunning new explanation for the mysterious events in the Bermuda Triangle.

Surprising Science

One of life's great mysteries, the Bermuda Triangle might have finally found an explanation. This strange region, that lies in the North Atlantic Ocean between Bermuda, Miami and San Juan, Puerto Rico, has been the presumed cause of dozens and dozens of mind-boggling disappearances of ships and planes.

Keep reading Show less

LIVE AT 2 PM ET | Lead your team toward collaborative problem solving

What does it mean to "lead without authority"?

Big Think LIVE

Add event to calendar

Keep reading Show less

Planet Nine will be discovered in the next decade. Here’s why.

The planet that we are searching for is a little bit smaller and closer than we originally thought.

Planet Nine will be discovered in the next decade. Here’s why. | ...
Videos
  • Years ago, California Institute of Technology professor Konstantin Batygin was inspired to embark on a journey of discovering what lurked beyond Neptune. What he and his collaborator discovered was a strange field of debris.
  • This field of debris exhibited a clustering of orbits, and something was keeping these orbits confined. The only plausible source would be the gravitational pull of an extra planet—Planet Nine.
  • While Planet Nine hasn't been found directly, the pieces of the puzzle are coming together. And Batygin is confident we'll return to a nine-planet solar system within the next decade.
Keep reading Show less
Scroll down to load more…