How the Smiths took over Europe

In more than a dozen countries as far apart as Portugal and Russia, 'Smith' is the most popular occupational surname

How the Smiths took over Europe
Image: Marcin Ciura
  • 'Smith' is not just the most common surname in many English-speaking countries
  • In local translations, it's also the most common occupational surname in a large part of Europe
  • Ironically, Smiths are so ubiquitous today because smiths were so special a few centuries ago

Meet the Smiths, Millers, Priests and Imams - the most popular occupational surnames across Europe.

Image: Marcin Ciura

Although very few people are smiths by profession these days, there are millions of Smiths by surname the world over. It's the most popular surname in Britain, Australia, New Zealand and the United States, as well as the second most popular surname in Canada and the fifth most popular one in Ireland. And they're a thriving bunch, at least in the U.S.: the 2010 Census (1) counted 2,442,977 Americans called Smith, 2.8% more than in 2000.

Curiously, 'Smith' also is one of the most popular surnames across most of Europe –translated in the various local vernaculars, of course. This map shows the most common occupational surnames in each country. By colour-coding the professions, this map shows a remarkable pro-smith consistency across Europe – as well as some curious regional exceptions.

‘Smith’ popular throughout Europe

'Smith', in all its variations, is the most popular occupational surname throughout Europe. Not just in the UK, but also in:

  • Belgium (Desmet) and Luxembourg, (Schmitt);
  • France (Lefebvre), Italy (Ferrari) and Portugal (Ferreira);
  • Slovenia (Kovačič), Croatia (Kovačevič), Hungary (Kovács), Slovakia (Kováč), Poland (Kowalski), Lithuania (Kavaliauskas), Latvia (Kalējs) and Belarus (Kavalyov);
  • Estonia (Sepp); and
  • Russia (Kuznetsov).

‘Miller’ on top in many Germanic-language countries

'Miller' is the most popular occupational surname in many Germanic-language countries, but also in Spain and Ukraine (perhaps because the grain in both countries is mainly in the plain):

  • There's Müller (in Germany and Switzerland), Møller (in Denmark and Norway) and Möller (Sweden);
  • Molina (in Spain – the map also shows the most popular surname in Catalonia/Catalan: Ferrer, i.e. 'Smith'); and
  • Melnik (in Ukraine).

Clergy surnames rule in the Balkans

Catholic clergy must remain celibate, so 'Priest' as a surname is rare to non-existent throughout Europe. Except in the Balkans, where Catholicism is largely absent. Here, the Orthodox and Islamic clergies have passed on the title from father to son, eventually as a surname, to popular effect. Orthodox clergy are addressed as papa or pope (which means 'father' – so the surname rather redundantly translates to 'father's son'). Islamic teachers or imams are known by the Turkish/Persian term hodzha. An overview:

  • Popov (in Bulgaria), Popovic (in both Serbia and Montenegro), Popovski (in Macedonia);
  • Popa (in Romania);
  • Papadopoulos (in Greece); and
  • Hodžić (in Bosnia-Herzegovina), Hoxha (in both Kosovo and Albania).

Landowners and other professions

Austria and the Czech Republic have different national languages but are neighbours and share a lot of history. Could that explain why they have a similar most popular occupational surname, for 'landowner'?

  • Huber (in Austria) and
  • Dvořák (in the Czech Republic).

Just four professions, that wraps up all but five countries on this map. Those five each have their very own most popular occupational surname:

  • Bakker (in the Netherlands): 'Baker'
  • Kinnunen (in Finland): 'Skinner'
  • Ceban (in Moldova): 'Shepherd'
  • Avci (in Turkey): 'Hunter'
  • Murphy (in Ireland): 'Sea Warrior'

​Even more Smiths

Judging from the popularity of these surnames, your generic European village of a few centuries ago really couldn't do without a smithy. It was a much more essential craft even than that of the miller (or the baker, who put the miller's flour to good use) – except in the Balkans, where spiritual sustenance apparently sated a greater need. On the outskirts of Anytown, Europe live the shepherd and the hunter, the skinner and the pirate.

A bit too simplistic? Perhaps not simplistic enough. This map could have been dominated by even more Smiths. As the original poster explains, he always picked the most frequent version of an occupational surname, even if multiple variants point to a more popular alternative.

In the Netherlands, for instance, people with the surnames Smit, Smits, Smid, de Smit, Smet and Smith collectively outnumber those with the surnames Bakker, Bekker, de Bakker and Backer. So, the Netherlands could be considered another win for 'Smith' – except that the variant Bakker is more frequent than any other single variant.

Same story in Germany: added up, there are more people named Schmidt, Schmitt, Schmitz and Schmid than Müller. Ditto for Spain: Herrero, Herrera and Ferrer together outnumber Molina. Also in Finland, where Seppä, Seppälä and Seppänen together have a higher count than Kinnunen.

Smiths in other cultures

'Smith' was a crucial occupation in other cultures too, judging from the familiar ring it has in these languages:

  • Demirci (Turkish)
  • Hadad (Syriac, Aramaic, Arabic)
  • Nalbani (Albanian)
  • McGowan (Gaelic)
  • Faber (Latin)

​Other most popular surnames

Take note, though: 'Smith' may be the most popular surname in in the Anglosphere, this map does not mean to show that its variants in French, Russian and other languages also are the most popular surnames in the countries marked grey. They are merely the most popular occupational surnames.

As this sample of most common ones for each country shows, surnames can refer to a host of other things. Personal qualities or physical attributes, for example:

  • Russia: Smirnov ('the quiet one')
  • Turkey: Yilmaz ('unflinching')
  • Hungary: Nagy ('big')
  • Italy: Rossi/Russo ('red', in northern and southern Italy, respectively)

Another option: the origin of the name-bearer (be it a place or a person):

  • Sweden: Andersson ('son of Anders')
  • Slovakia: Horvath ('Croat')
  • Kosovo: Krasniqi (refers to the Krasniq tribe and their mountainous home region)
  • Portugal: Silva ('woodland')
  • Latvia: Bērziņš ('little birch tree')
  • Estonia: Tamm ('oak')

But sometimes, even for the most popular ones, the exact origin of the surname is lost in time:

  • Spain: Garcia (originally Basque, possibly meaning 'young', 'bear' or 'young bear')
  • Finland: Korhonen ('hard of hearing' or 'dim-witted'; 'village elder'; 'proud'; 'upright').

Smith popularity theory

So why exactly is Smith – and not Miller, for example – the most popular surname in many English-speaking countries? The theory propounded by historian C.M. Matthews in History Today (July 1967) probably also holds for the other-language variants so popular throughout Europe:

"The reason for (the) multiplicity (of the surname 'Smith') is not so much that metal-workers were numerous as that they were important and widespread. On the skill of the smith, both rich and poor depended for the most essential things of life, the tools of husbandry and the weapons of hunting and war. Every community in the land must have one, every castle, every manor; and so distinctive was his trade that he would seldom need another name".

That does not mean all people with the surname have a forefather who forged iron into weapons and farm tools. Especially in North America, 'Smith' was adopted by many people precisely because it was already common – as a secret identity or to blend in, for example by natives, slaves and immigrants.

Map found here on Marcin Ciura's blog.

Strange Maps #942

Got a strange map? Let me know at strangemaps@gmail.com.

Live on Monday: Does the US need one billion people?

What would happen if you tripled the US population? Join Matthew Yglesias and Charles Duhigg at 1pm ET on Monday, September 28.

Should you grow a beard? Here's how women perceive bearded men

Whether or not women think beards are sexy has to do with "moral disgust"

Photo Credit: Frank Marino / Unsplash
Sex & Relationships
  • A new study found that women perceive men with facial hair to be more attractive as well as physically and socially dominant.
  • Women tend to associate more masculine faces with physical strength, social assertiveness, and formidability.
  • Women who display higher levels of "moral disgust," or feelings of repugnance toward taboo behaviors, are more likely to prefer hairy faces.
Keep reading Show less

Learn innovation with 3-star Michelin chef Dominique Crenn

Dominique Crenn, the only female chef in America with three Michelin stars, joins Big Think Live.

Big Think LIVE

Having been exposed to mavericks in the French culinary world at a young age, three-star Michelin chef Dominique Crenn made it her mission to cook in a way that is not only delicious and elegant, but also expressive, memorable, and true to her experience.

Keep reading Show less

Universe works like a cosmological neural network, argues new paper

Controversial physics theory says reality around us behaves like a computer neural network.

Synapses in space.

Credit: sakkmesterke
Surprising Science
  • Physicist proposes that the universe behaves like an artificial neural network.
  • The scientist's new paper seeks to reconcile classical physics and quantum mechanics.
  • The theory claims that natural selection produces both atoms and "observers".
Keep reading Show less

We studied what happens when guys add their cats to their dating app profiles

43% of people think they can get a sense of someone's personality by their picture.

Photo by Luigi Pozzoli on Unsplash
Sex & Relationships

If you've used a dating app, you'll know the importance of choosing good profile pics.

Keep reading Show less
Coronavirus

Quarantine rule breakers in 17th-century Italy partied all night – and some clergy condemned the feasting

17th-century outbreaks of plague in Italy reveal both tensions between religious and public health authorities.

Scroll down to load more…
Quantcast