from the world's big
This WWII map taught Americans to sympathize with the Soviets
By transplanting Operation Barbarossa on a map of the US, it showed the devastating effects of the Nazi invasion
- How did wartime America generate sympathy for the Soviets?
- By transplanting Operation Barbarossa to America's shores
- This is what the Nazi invasion of the USSR would have looked like, had it – somehow – happened to the US.
An M3A1 Stuart tank and part of an A-20 bomber hull shipped via polar convoy from the US to the USSR.
The US and the USSR were less than friendly before the Second World War, and deadly enemies soon thereafter; but during the conflict, they were allies in the fight against Nazi Germany.
Via the Lend-Lease Act, the US – with some help from the UK and Canada – supplied the Soviet Union with around $130 billions' worth of supplies during WWII.
From as early as August 1941 – just two months after the Nazi invasion of the USSR – American convoy ships supplied the Soviets with what would eventually amount to more than 14,000 airplanes, 44,000 jeeps, 375,000 trucks, 8,000 tractors and 12,000 tanks. Not to mention 1.5 million blankets, 15 million pairs of army boots, 2.6 million tons of petroleum products and 4.4 million tons of food supplies.
"The Americans gave us so many goods without which we wouldn't have been able to form our reserves and continue the war", admitted Georgy Zhukov, one of the Soviet Union's most famous WWII generals.
Operation Barbarossa in the US
Bringing it home: Operation Barbarossa transplanted to the United States.
For America, generating public sympathy and sustaining the costly support for its ideological opposite was both awkward and vital for the war effort. One obvious way to do this was to shift the focus from the Soviets' alien ideology to the huge toll they were paying in the fight against Hitler – both in lives lost and lands destroyed.
This map literally brought home to Americans the devastating effects of 'Operation Barbarossa' – the Nazi codename for the invasion of the Soviet Union. As the legend to this map says:
The siege of Rochester, NY
Boston is Riga, New York City is Kaunas, Philadelphia is Lvov and DC is Minsk. All are occupied by the Nazis. Rochester – a stand-in for Leningrad – is besieged but not defeated.On this map is shown the vastness of the war effort of our Soviet Allies. The map of the western half of the Soviet Union has been placed (in reverse) upon the map of the United States. The shadings show:
- (in brown) A map of that part of the Soviet Union occupied by the Nazis at the peak of the invasion. (The map of the Soviet Union is reversed to compare the industrial west of Russia with the similar eastern area of the United States.)
- (in orange) Giant industrial and agricultural communities moved from invaded regions… equivalent to a transfer of the mills and factories of all eastern America to the Rockies.
In their rush towards the Caucasus (spanning Oklahoma and Arkansas), the Nazis have occupied a large swathe of the South (Ukraine) from Knoxville (Kiev) to New Orleans (Sevastopol), but have not bothered invading Florida.
The legend goes on to explain:
Russian War Relief, Inc. 11 E. 35th St., New York City, presents this map to help Americans to visualize the almost inconceivable extent of the need for American aid to the people of the Soviet Union. From the vast invaded area of the USSR, here shown superimposed on a map of the United States, 38,000,000 Russians escaped the Nazis in 1941 by fleeing their homes. Strafed by dive bombers and machine-gunning "hedge-hoppers," they fled across their country before the invaders while their Red Army fought and fell back – fought and fell back.
Omaha, capital of the USSR
Because Detroit (Moscow) is dangerously close to the front line, the capital has been moved temporarily deeper into the country, to Omaha (Kuibyshev).
In terms of the map of America, 38,000,000 persons walked and rode across more than half the United States. They left behind them – besides their homes – the lands which fed them, the mines which fed their factories, their clothing, their hospitals, their schools, their nurseries – in short, their lives. In the land to which they went there was almost none of these things. They built new factories first, ploughed the land second. Now they are building new homes.
But – even as we would be – they are often cold, often hungry, always physically exhausted. They need help. But the fate of those who escaped is not the worst fate in Russia. Forty million of the residents of the invaded area did not escape! They stayed. From forest hideouts they have seen the Nazis burn their homes, truck away their stores of food, their clothing, even their household equipment. Some, staying in their homes to meet the invaders, have been robbed of all they owned… and many have been killed.
By the time I get to Tashkent
The Germans have seriously misjudged the strategic depth of the US/USSR: the Soviets have moved entire industrial zones safely away from the front, to Phoenix (Tashkent), Salt Lake City (Omsk) and Boise (Novosibirsk).
Some of the survivors now are returning to homes recaptured by the Red Army. They return to almost utter desolation. They, too, need help. Ten million have died in the fight that is theirs and ours. The Red Army has lost almost as many men, in killed and wounded, as are now in all the American armed forces! Civilians have died – by millions – of malnutrition, cold, exhaustion, disease – and of the Nazi hangman's noose and the bullets of Nazi firing squads. Hundreds of thousands of Soviet homes are sheltering the war's orphans.
Look at the map. Imagine the tragedy to you and your family if an invader had ravaged America throughout all that shaded territory on our Atlantic seaboard, westward all the way to St. Louis and Tulsa. Because the equivalent of that tragedy has happened to millions of our Soviet allies, Russian War Relief, Inc., asks all Americans to help keep relief ships sailing.
3000 more miles to Vladivostok
Did we say strategic depth? Where the US ends at San Francisco, the USSR went on for 3000 more miles, all the way to Vladivostok – Russia's version of San Francisco.
Russian War Relief, Inc. was founded in New York City a month after Germany's attack on Russia. It would grow to become America's largest relief agency during WWII. Its chairman was Edward C. Carter, who among many other functions was secretary-general of the Institute of Pacific Relations – an organisation sometimes accused of being a communist front. One of RWR's directors was journalist Fred Myers, who would go on to co-found the Humane Society in 1954.
Lend-Lease picture found here, from the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library / Public Domain. Map found here, at the Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center at the Boston Public Library.
For a similar map, but from the First World War, see #616.
Strange Maps #983
Got a strange map? Let me know at firstname.lastname@example.org.
What would it be like to experience the 4th dimension?
Physicists have understood at least theoretically, that there may be higher dimensions, besides our normal three. The first clue came in 1905 when Einstein developed his theory of special relativity. Of course, by dimensions we’re talking about length, width, and height. Generally speaking, when we talk about a fourth dimension, it’s considered space-time. But here, physicists mean a spatial dimension beyond the normal three, not a parallel universe, as such dimensions are mistaken for in popular sci-fi shows.
Duke University researchers might have solved a half-century old problem.
- Duke University researchers created a hydrogel that appears to be as strong and flexible as human cartilage.
- The blend of three polymers provides enough flexibility and durability to mimic the knee.
- The next step is to test this hydrogel in sheep; human use can take at least three years.
Duke researchers have developed the first gel-based synthetic cartilage with the strength of the real thing. A quarter-sized disc of the material can withstand the weight of a 100-pound kettlebell without tearing or losing its shape.
Photo: Feichen Yang.<p>That's the word from a team in the Department of Chemistry and Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science at Duke University. Their <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/adfm.202003451" target="_blank">new paper</a>, published in the journal,<em> Advanced Functional Materials</em>, details this exciting evolution of this frustrating joint.<br></p><p>Researchers have sought materials strong and versatile enough to repair a knee since at least the seventies. This new hydrogel, comprised of three polymers, might be it. When two of the polymers are stretched, a third keeps the entire structure intact. When pulled 100,000 times, the cartilage held up as well as materials used in bone implants. The team also rubbed the hydrogel against natural cartilage a million times and found it to be as wear-resistant as the real thing. </p><p>The hydrogel has the appearance of Jell-O and is comprised of 60 percent water. Co-author, Feichen Yang, <a href="https://today.duke.edu/2020/06/lab-first-cartilage-mimicking-gel-strong-enough-knees" target="_blank">says</a> this network of polymers is particularly durable: "Only this combination of all three components is both flexible and stiff and therefore strong." </p><p> As with any new material, a lot of testing must be conducted. They don't foresee this hydrogel being implanted into human bodies for at least three years. The next step is to test it out in sheep. </p><p>Still, this is an exciting step forward in the rehabilitation of one of our trickiest joints. Given the potential reward, the wait is worth it. </p><p><span></span>--</p><p><em>Stay in touch with Derek on <a href="http://www.twitter.com/derekberes" target="_blank">Twitter</a>, <a href="https://www.facebook.com/DerekBeresdotcom" target="_blank">Facebook</a> and <a href="https://derekberes.substack.com/" target="_blank">Substack</a>. His next book is</em> "<em>Hero's Dose: The Case For Psychedelics in Ritual and Therapy."</em></p>
An algorithm may allow doctors to assess PTSD candidates for early intervention after traumatic ER visits.
- 10-15% of people visiting emergency rooms eventually develop symptoms of long-lasting PTSD.
- Early treatment is available but there's been no way to tell who needs it.
- Using clinical data already being collected, machine learning can identify who's at risk.
The psychological scars a traumatic experience can leave behind may have a more profound effect on a person than the original traumatic experience. Long after an acute emergency is resolved, victims of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) continue to suffer its consequences.
In the U.S. some 30 million patients are annually treated in emergency departments (EDs) for a range of traumatic injuries. Add to that urgent admissions to the ED with the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. Health experts predict that some 10 percent to 15 percent of these people will develop long-lasting PTSD within a year of the initial incident. While there are interventions that can help individuals avoid PTSD, there's been no reliable way to identify those most likely to need it.
That may now have changed. A multi-disciplinary team of researchers has developed a method for predicting who is most likely to develop PTSD after a traumatic emergency-room experience. Their study is published in the journal Nature Medicine.
70 data points and machine learning
Image source: Creators Collective/Unsplash
Study lead author Katharina Schultebraucks of Columbia University's Department Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons says:
"For many trauma patients, the ED visit is often their sole contact with the health care system. The time immediately after a traumatic injury is a critical window for identifying people at risk for PTSD and arranging appropriate follow-up treatment. The earlier we can treat those at risk, the better the likely outcomes."
The new PTSD test uses machine learning and 70 clinical data points plus a clinical stress-level assessment to develop a PTSD score for an individual that identifies their risk of acquiring the condition.
Among the 70 data points are stress hormone levels, inflammatory signals, high blood pressure, and an anxiety-level assessment. Says Schultebraucks, "We selected measures that are routinely collected in the ED and logged in the electronic medical record, plus answers to a few short questions about the psychological stress response. The idea was to create a tool that would be universally available and would add little burden to ED personnel."
Researchers used data from adult trauma survivors in Atlanta, Georgia (377 individuals) and New York City (221 individuals) to test their system.
Of this cohort, 90 percent of those predicted to be at high risk developed long-lasting PTSD symptoms within a year of the initial traumatic event — just 5 percent of people who never developed PTSD symptoms had been erroneously identified as being at risk.
On the other side of the coin, 29 percent of individuals were 'false negatives," tagged by the algorithm as not being at risk of PTSD, but then developing symptoms.
Image source: Külli Kittus/Unsplash
Schultebraucks looks forward to more testing as the researchers continue to refine their algorithm and to instill confidence in the approach among ED clinicians: "Because previous models for predicting PTSD risk have not been validated in independent samples like our model, they haven't been adopted in clinical practice." She expects that, "Testing and validation of our model in larger samples will be necessary for the algorithm to be ready-to-use in the general population."
"Currently only 7% of level-1 trauma centers routinely screen for PTSD," notes Schultebraucks. "We hope that the algorithm will provide ED clinicians with a rapid, automatic readout that they could use for discharge planning and the prevention of PTSD." She envisions the algorithm being implemented in the future as a feature of electronic medical records.
The researchers also plan to test their algorithm at predicting PTSD in people whose traumatic experiences come in the form of health events such as heart attacks and strokes, as opposed to visits to the emergency department.