A.I. Can Produce Images of Your Face Using Only Genetic Data
Researchers at Human Longevity have developed technology that can generate images of individuals face using only their genetic information. But not all are convinced.
What if a computer could generate a realistic image of your face using only your genetic information?
That's precisely the technology researchers at Human Longevity, a San-Diego based company with the world's largest genomic database, claim to have developed. The team, led by genome-sequencing pioneer Craig Venter, reported their findings in a controversial paper published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
To train the A.I. to generate facial images, the team first sequenced the genomes of 1,061 people of various ages and ethnicity. They also took high-definition 3D photos of each participant. Finally, they fed the photos and genetic information to an algorithm that taught itself how small differences in DNA relate to facial features, like cheekbone height or protrusion of the brow. The algorithm was then given genomes it hadn't seen before, and it used them to generate images of the individual's face that could be reliably matched to real photos.
Well... sort of.
The team successfully matched eight out of ten images to the real photos. However, this rate fell to just five out of ten when researchers analyzed participants of only one race, considering facial features differ slightly by race. Judge for yourself how well the algorithm did:
The potential applications of this technology are especially intriguing for fields like forensic science — what if investigators were able to use genetic information left at a crime scene to “see” the perpetrator?
Interesting as the applications may be, Human Longevity is more concerned with the implications its findings has on privacy in genomics research, namely that technologies like this could be used to match people's thought-to-be anonymous genetic information to their online photos.
“A core belief from the HLI researchers is that there is now no such thing as true deidentification and full privacy in publicly accessible databases,” HLI said in a statement.
Privacy concerns seem to be widely shared in the community. But some scientists say that the paper is misleading. One reason is that the Human Longevity researchers already knew the age, sex and race of the participants — demographic information that could have been used to achieve the same matching rate without using the computer-generated photos at all.
“I don't think this paper raises those risks, because they haven’t demonstrated any ability to individuate this person from DNA,” said Mark Shriver, an anthropologist at Pennsylvania State University in University Park, in an interview with Nature.
Jason Piper, a former employee of Human Longevity, took issue with what he considered a lack of accuracy in the images, writing on Twitter that:
“everyone looks close to the average of their race, everyone looks like their prediction.”
But perhaps the most exhaustive criticism came from computational biologist Yaniv Erlich, who published a paper entitled Major flaws in "Identification of individuals by trait prediction using whole-genome sequencing data, part of which reads:
“The results of the authors are unremarkable. I achieved a similar re-identification accuracy with the Venter cohort in 10 minutes of work without fancy face morphology...”
Just days later, the team behind the original paper issued a rebuttal, titled simply No major flaws in "Identification of individuals by trait prediction using whole-genome sequencing data.
(It may seem mundane to those outside the field, but it's a pretty vicious beef in the scientific community at the moment, as seen by the "shots fired!" and "I'm gonna grab my popcorn..." comments under both papers.)
Access to genomics data
Underlying this whole debate is a question of access. Genomic data is used across various fields of study, but perhaps most importantly in research that seeks to combat diseases. In an interview with Nature, Piper said that Human Longevity has a vested interest in restricting access to DNA databases because it's a for-profit company that's trying to build the largest genome database in the world.
“I think genetic privacy is very important, but the approach being taken is the wrong one,” Piper said. “In order to get more information out of the genome, people have to share.”
Rather than privatizing and restricting access to genomic data, Piper said that a better solution would be to make data public while using techniques that still allow individuals to remain anonymous.
A federal judge ruled that the Trump administration likely violated the reporter's Fifth Amendment rights when it stripped his press credentials earlier this month.
- Acosta will be allowed to return to the White House on Friday.
- The judge described the ruling as narrow, and didn't rule one way or the other on violations of the First Amendment.
- The case is still open, and the administration may choose to appeal the ruling.
Progressive America would be half as big, but twice as populated as its conservative twin.
- America's two political tribes have consolidated into 'red' and 'blue' nations, with seemingly irreconcilable differences.
- Perhaps the best way to stop the infighting is to go for a divorce and give the two nations a country each
- Based on the UN's partition plan for Israel/Palestine, this proposal provides territorial contiguity and sea access to both 'red' and 'blue' America
The definition of a kilogram will now be fixed to Planck's constant, a fundamental part of quantum physics.
- The new definition of a kilogram is based on a physical constant in quantum physics.
- Unlike the current definition of a kilogram, this measurement will never change.
- Scientists also voted to update the definitions of several other measurements in physics.
SMARTER FASTER trademarks owned by The Big Think, Inc. All rights reserved.