Some thoughts on free will
Sorry to belabor this topic, but I haven’t been able to stop thinking about it!
Does the fact that each person is different, both from the nature side (except identical twins) and the nurture side, mean our decisions are unpredictable? The arguments that our decisions are the result of electro-chemical processes seem unassailable; we can’t escape the laws of physics after all. When presented with a decision the brain will go through predictable processes, reviewing memories of similar choices and weighing the benefits/dangers of each possibility, undoubtedly triggered by electro-chemical events, but the memories recalled, variables considered, and things valued will be different in each person. One may say that this is obvious, and doesn’t mean anything, but I think it may be logically solid way to sneak free will in the backdoor. A decision will be the immediate result of a preceding electro-chemical process, which is itself the end of a casual chain that reaches back to before the person was conceived, but the experience since birth and the genetic makeup will be different in each individual. Say we knew a persons history (I eat cheerios for breakfast almost everyday) we would still have to know his genetic predispositions (when I'm likely to try something new) in order to attempt to predict what the decision will be, even granting that we know the electro-chemical status of the brain throughout the decision making process. No one can "know" what anyone will do, they can do whatever they want, and people often surprise themselves. Two brains experiencing the same electro-chemical conditions could make different decisions, or even if it is a decision made by the same person everyday (like what to have for breakfast), they will have accrued 24 hours more experience between each one, making a different decision possible every day (I think I"ll have eggs for breakfast tomorrow!). The different decision may be a result of a change in outlook on life, health, or just mood, but it can alter the decision. Our free will doesn’t come from an ability to bypass the laws of physics or logic but from our undeniable uniqueness. We may be meat machines, but we, and the world we live in, are so complex that a decision will never be considered the same way twice. We can’t escape the laws of physics any more than we can escape our past or our genes, but they all combine to create an infinite amount of unique conditions since the last two are not nearly as static as the first. Every choice anyone encounters has never been approached by the unique combination of genes/experience that they bring to the table at that very moment. Their choice is therefore completely unique and unpredictable. It may not be the normal notion of free will, but it does allow us to own our actions.
What can 3D printing do for medicine? The "sky is the limit," says Northwell Health researcher Dr. Todd Goldstein.
- Medical professionals are currently using 3D printers to create prosthetics and patient-specific organ models that doctors can use to prepare for surgery.
- Eventually, scientists hope to print patient-specific organs that can be transplanted safely into the human body.
- Northwell Health, New York State's largest health care provider, is pioneering 3D printing in medicine in three key ways.
Beyond Beef sizzles and marbleizes just like real beef, Beyond Meat says.
- Shares of Beyond Meat opened at around $200 on Tuesday morning, falling to nearly $170 by the afternoon.
- Wall Street analysts remain wary of the stock, which has been on a massive hot streak since its IPO in May.
- Beyond Meat faces competition from Impossible Foods and, as of this week, Tyson.
Average waiting time for hitchhikers in Ireland: Less than 30 minutes. In southern Spain: More than 90 minutes.
- A popular means of transportation from the 1920s to the 1980s, hitchhiking has since fallen in disrepute.
- However, as this map shows, thumbing a ride still occupies a thriving niche – if at great geographic variance.
- In some countries and areas, you'll be off the street in no time. In other places, it's much harder to thumb your way from A to B.
A recent study used data from the Big Five personality to estimate psychopathy prevalence in the 48 contiguous states and Washington, D.C.
- The study estimated psychopathy prevalence by looking at the prevalence of certain traits in the Big Five model of personality.
- The District of Columbia had the highest prevalence of psychopathy, compared to other areas.
- The authors cautioned that their measurements were indirect, and that psychopathy in general is difficult to define precisely.
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