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How Ebola Can Help Us Vaccinate Against the Danger of Fear
The common definition of risk is ‘the probability of an adverse outcome or event’…in other words, the chance of something bad happening; losing your life, your health, your home, your money. The problem is, when most of us wonder ‘what’s the risk of…?” we focus too much on the probability part…the odds…the statistical chance of that bad thing happening. And the problem there is that while the odds may be calculable, “bad’ is entirely subjective, a matter of how the outcome feels, not how likely it is.
As Paul Slovic, a pioneer in the research of the psychology of risk perception, has put it, “risk is a feeling”. And the fear of Ebola is a perfect example. The news is full of dramatic stories about the outbreak in western Africa of this scary disease, The Deadliest Ebola Outbreak in History, even more so here in the U.S, now that Americans working on containing the outbreak have become victims. In the WHO information page about Ebola here’s how they describe the symptoms;
…a severe acute viral illness often characterized by the sudden onset of fever, intense weakness, muscle pain, headache and sore throat. This is followed by vomiting, diarrhoea, rash, impaired kidney and liver function, and in some cases, both internal and external bleeding.
You know, like bleeding out of your eyeballs and nose and mouth…while all that other awful suffering is also going on and your skin boils up in horrific pustules…and then you almost certainly die! Ebola is untreatable, and if you get infected, chances are good that you will die. Fatality rates in this outbreak are in the 60% range, but different strains kill as many as 90% of those infected.
Terrible suffering. No control. No hope. How does that feel? Undoubtedly pretty scary. Might it relieve your fears at all to know that the odds that you will get this disease are infinitesimal? Not only would
The chances of that are so tiny that….well, it would be ridiculous for anyone not in that region, or where public health and medical systems are even moderately well-established, to worry about it.
But worry about Ebola we do. And those worries have nothing to do with the odds of dying. The thing that matters is what if would feel like to BECOME dead. It’s the process that’s scary, more than the outcome itself. When Slovic and colleagues asked people to rank the risks they worried about most, the ones that rated highest shared these characteristics…great pain and suffering, and a lack of control. Those conditions make any risk scarier, regardless of the odds.
The problem is…our emotional relationship to risk can be a huge threat all by itself. Fear of flying - we can't control it and dying that way would be horrific - leads to driving, which feels like taking control, but which is far more likely to cause ‘an adverse occurrence or event’.
And some of the things we do to establish a sense of control against the fear of cancer, which despite much medical progress we still perceive to be a diagnosis of death by way of terrible suffering - can also do more harm than good. Women have breast biopsies, or mastectomies, after receiving diagnoses for Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS), a condition that is not actually breast cancer and sometimes goes away by itself. Men with low grade slow-growing prostate cancer, types which call for only ‘watchful waiting’ and regular check ups, have surgery or radiation treatments that run a significant risk (better than 50% depending on the patient and type of treatment) of lifelong urinary incontinence, bowel problems, or loss of libido. Elderly men go through this even when they have a form of the disease that is so slow-growing that they’ll be dead of old age long before the prostate cancer could kill them. Extensive screening for other types of potential cancers, including lung and thyroid and esophageal, lead to treatments that sometimes cause harm, for conditions that are not cancer at all, or don’t medically require more than monitoring.
The harm of Cancer Phobia is so widespread that in 2013 medical experts proposed redefining several medical conditions to take the word cancer out of the diagnosis, using “indolent lesions of epithelial origin” (IDLE) instead.
We can’t exactly come up with a new name for Ebola, and it wouldn’t do much good. It’s not the name in this case, like the word cancer, that does the scaring. It’s the disease itself, the suffering it causes and the untreatable can't-do-anything-about-it doom a diagnosis brings. But what we can do is use this outbreak to help realize how our fear is disproportionate to the probability of the risk, and realize why, and use that to diagnose another condition from which we all suffer…The Risk Perception Gap, when because of the emotional and instinctive way we perceive risk we fear too much, or too little, and do things that are risky all by themselves.
We can try to vaccinate ourselves against that. And we should. Odds are we’d all be better off.
What is human dignity? Here's a primer, told through 200 years of great essays, lectures, and novels.
- Human dignity means that each of our lives have an unimpeachable value simply because we are human, and therefore we are deserving of a baseline level of respect.
- That baseline requires more than the absence of violence, discrimination, and authoritarianism. It means giving individuals the freedom to pursue their own happiness and purpose.
- We look at incredible writings from the last 200 years that illustrate the push for human dignity in regards to slavery, equality, communism, free speech and education.
The inherent worth of all human beings<p>Human dignity is the inherent worth of each individual human being. Recognizing human dignity means respecting human beings' special value—value that sets us apart from other animals; value that is intrinsic and cannot be lost.</p> <p>Liberalism—the broad political philosophy that organizes society around liberty, justice, and equality—is rooted in the idea of human dignity. Liberalism assumes each of our lives, plans, and preferences have some unimpeachable value, not because of any objective evaluation or contribution to a greater good, but simply because they belong to a human being. We are human, and therefore deserving of a baseline level of respect. </p> <p>Because so many of us take human dignity for granted—just a fact of our humanness—it's usually only when someone's dignity is ignored or violated that we feel compelled to talk about it. </p> <p>But human dignity means more than the absence of violence, discrimination, and authoritarianism. It means giving individuals the freedom to pursue their own happiness and purpose—a freedom that can be hampered by restrictive social institutions or the tyranny of the majority. The liberal ideal of the good society is not just peaceful but also pluralistic: It is a society in which we respect others' right to think and live differently than we do.</p>
From the 19th century to today<p>With <a href="https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?year_start=1800&year_end=2019&content=human+dignity&corpus=26&smoothing=3&direct_url=t1%3B%2Chuman%20dignity%3B%2Cc0" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Google Books Ngram Viewer</a>, we can chart mentions of human dignity from 1800-2019.</p><img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNDg0ODU0My9vcmlnaW4ucG5nIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY1MTUwMzE4MX0.bu0D_0uQuyNLyJjfRESNhu7twkJ5nxu8pQtfa1w3hZs/img.png?width=980" id="7ef38" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="9974c7bef3812fcb36858f325889e3c6" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
American novelist, writer, playwright, poet, essayist and civil rights activist James Baldwin at his home in Saint-Paul-de-Vence, southern France, on November 6, 1979.
Credit: Ralph Gatti/AFP via Getty Images
The future of dignity<p>Around the world, people are still working toward the full and equal recognition of human dignity. Every year, new speeches and writings help us understand what dignity is—not only what it looks like when dignity is violated but also what it looks like when dignity is honored. In his posthumous essay, Congressman Lewis wrote, "When historians pick up their pens to write the story of the 21st century, let them say that it was your generation who laid down the heavy burdens of hate at last and that peace finally triumphed over violence, aggression and war."</p> <p>The more we talk about human dignity, the better we understand it. And the sooner we can make progress toward a shared vision of peace, freedom, and mutual respect for all. </p>
Scientists find that bursts of gamma rays may exceed the speed of light and cause time-reversibility.
- Astrophysicists propose that gamma-ray bursts may exceed the speed of light.
- The superluminal jets may also be responsible for time-reversibility.
- The finding doesn't go against Einstein's theory because this effect happens in the jet medium not a vacuum.
Jet bursting out of a blazar. Black-hole-powered galaxies called blazars are the most common sources detected by NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.
Cosmic death beams: Understanding gamma ray bursts<div class="rm-shortcode" data-media_id="cu2knVEk" data-player_id="FvQKszTI" data-rm-shortcode-id="c6cfd20fdf31c82cb206ade8ce21ba3f"> <div id="botr_cu2knVEk_FvQKszTI_div" class="jwplayer-media" data-jwplayer-video-src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/cu2knVEk-FvQKszTI.js"> <img src="https://cdn.jwplayer.com/thumbs/cu2knVEk-1920.jpg" class="jwplayer-media-preview" /> </div> <script src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/cu2knVEk-FvQKszTI.js"></script> </div>
Philosophers have been asking the question for hundreds of years. Now neuroscientists are joining the quest to find out.
- The debate over whether or not humans have free will is centuries old and ongoing. While studies have confirmed that our brains perform many tasks without conscious effort, there remains the question of how much we control and when it matters.
- According to Dr. Uri Maoz, it comes down to what your definition of free will is and to learning more about how we make decisions versus when it is ok for our brain to subconsciously control our actions and movements.
- "If we understand the interplay between conscious and unconscious," says Maoz, "it might help us realize what we can control and what we can't."
Puerto Rico's iconic telescope facilitated important scientific discoveries while inspiring young scientists and the public imagination.
- The Arecibo Observatory's main telescope collapsed on Tuesday morning.
- Although officials had been planning to demolish the telescope, the accident marked an unceremonious end to a beloved astronomical tool.
- The Arecibo radio telescope has facilitated many discoveries in astronomy, including the mapping of near-Earth asteroids and the detection of exoplanets.
Bradley Rivera via twitter.com<p>In 1963, the concave dish was built into a natural sinkhole on the northern coast of Puerto Rico. The location was <a href="https://www.space.com/20984-arecibo-observatory.html" target="_blank">picked because it was near the equator,</a> providing scientists a clear view of planets passing overhead, and also of the ionosphere, which is the uniquely reactive layer of Earth's upper atmosphere where the northern lights form.</p><p>Since its construction, scientists have used the Arecibo telescope to map near-Earth asteroids, detect gravitational waves, study pulsars, detect exoplanets and <a href="https://www.seti.org/goodbye-arecibo" target="_blank">search for alien civilizations</a>, among other projects. Here's a brief look at some of the discoveries and accomplishments made using the Arecibo telescope:</p><ul><li>1964: Astronomer <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gordon_Pettengill" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Gordon Pettengill</a> discovers that Mercury's rotation period is 59 days, significantly shorter than the previous prediction of 88 days.</li><li>1974: Physicists Russell Alan Hulse and Joseph Hooton Taylor Jr. discovers the first binary pulsar, for which they won a Nobel Prize in Physics.</li><li>1974: Scientists use the telescope to transmit the "Arecibo message" to <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Globular_Cluster_in_Hercules" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">globular star cluster M13</a>. The message, when translated into image form, contains basic information about humanity and human knowledge: the numbers one to 10, a map of our solar system, an illustration of a human being, and the atomic numbers of certain elements.</li><li>1989: Scientists use the telescope to image an asteroid for the first time.</li><li>1992: Astronomers Alex Wolszczan and Dale Frail become the first to discover exoplanets.</li></ul>
The Google-owned company developed a system that can reliably predict the 3D shapes of proteins.