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Big News! Radiation Risk Responsibly Reported!
Most reporting about risk hypes the danger but doesn't provide all the information the reader needs to put the actual threat in perspective. So when balanced risk reporting shows up, it should be praised.
It’s easy to find news media coverage of risk that plays up the scary and plays down any facts that moderate the scary — or leaves such information out altogether. Finding media alarmism about risk is like shooting fish in a barrel. It is less common to find reporting about risk that not only informs the reader about the danger, but also puts things in fair perspective. Such work should be praised. Such journalists and news outlets should become the sources of information we rely on.
Alison Abbott does a terrific job reporting on the risk of radiation in Nature: "Researchers pin down risks of low-dose radiation."
Let’s start with the sub head
Large study of nuclear workers shows that even tiny doses slightly boost risk of leukaemia
“…boosts the risk of leukemia”. Radiation RISK!!! There is definitely something to worry about, to report on, likely to get the reader’s attention. Or as a highly respected science writer put on her Facebook feed, “Take a look at this chart of rising US exposure due to medical scans. Kind of wow.” But wait. Look at the qualifying adverb, right there in the subhead: ”slightly.” And now consider what Abbott tells us, high up in the story, and repeatedly; the risk is TINY, hardly “wow” at all.
In her second sentence, Abbott makes clear that the actual likelihood of harm from low-dose radiation exposure is infinitesimal;
So small are the effects on health — if they exist at all — that they seem barely possible to detect. A landmark international study has now provided the strongest support yet for the idea that long-term exposure to low-dose radiation increases the risk of leukaemia, although the rise is only minuscule.
And she continues in the very next sentence to put the actual health risk of low-dose radiation exposure in perspective.
The finding will not change existing guidelines on exposure limits for workers in the nuclear and medical industries, because those policies already assume that each additional exposure to low-dose radiation brings with it a slight increase in risk of cancer.
(Bear in mind that, as with any risk, exposure, and therefore the overall likelihood of harm, is much higher in occupational settings that for the average citizen, such as you and I from medical radiation. That's why the study looked at workers in the nuclear and medical fields where any risk that might exist would be more likely to show up.)
And in the first sentence of the next (fourth) paragraph, again, Abbott puts the actual risk in perspective, quoting an independent radiation biologist:
The health risk of low-dose radiation is really very tiny, but the public is very concerned...
Not until all that perspective has been established does Abbott get into the study itself, about the contentious issue of “Linear/No Threshold” (LNT). There is controversy over whether low doses of ionizing radiation (the nuclear kind) cause any health damage at all. Study of atomic bomb survivors have established that even at high doses the risks are small (less than 1 percent increase in lifetime cancer mortality risk), and from intermediate and lower doses the A bomb survivor studies have found no health effects that show up against normal disease rates. (No multi-generational genetic damage either.)
But ionizing radiation is a mutagen, and mutagenicity can give rise to cancer, so the conservative/protective assumption has always been that the only absolutely ZERO risk dose of radiation is none; that there is “no threshold” below which a dose of radiation doesn’t raise risk.
The challenge for epidemiologists is to get a large enough sample of people exposed to low-dose radiation that these tiny doses, of a tiny risk, will show up in that sample. And for that, the sample has to be huge. That’s what this new study has added to the evidence, examining health data from more than 300,000 nuclear energy workers, who wear detection equipment that tracks how much radiation they’ve been exposed to.
Looking at the health records of these workers and comparing health outcomes to doses received, the study shows that even low doses raise the risk of certain kinds of radiologically induced cancers (radiation is not suspected to cause most types of cancer), specifically some leukemias. The increase is small. Curiously, the study also finds that the higher the doses of radiation the workers got, the lower their risk for other radiologically sensitive cancers; chronic lymphatic leukemia, multiple myeloma, Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
So do low doses of radiation cause cancer? The debate about LNT will continue. Scientists on both sides of the LNT question about whether low-dose radiation poses any risk have dug in their intellectual heels and each side will see this evidence through their own lenses.
But the bottom line remains — and this study affirms — that the risk of exposure to low doses of ionizing (nuclear) radiation, even assuming such risk does exist, is TINY. And responsibly, Abbott makes that clear. Contrast her story on the controversy over low-dose radiation risk with the overtly alarmist piece "The Mushroom Cloud and the X-Ray Machine" by Sarah Laskow in Foreign Policy, which goes into great depth about the issue, and repeatedly plays up the fears, yet mentions nothing at all about how TINY the actual risk is. It’s a blatant piece of alarmist radiophobia that on the basic journalistic standards of accuracy and completeness would fail a freshman journalism class. (I reviewed that piece in Risk Reporting Fail, Part Two; An Egregious Case of Journalistic Radiation-phobia.)
Sure, Abbott’s story is in a prestigious science magazine, which is expected to report scientific/risk issues accurately and responsibly. It would be much more dramatic to find an example of solid risk reporting in the popular media. But Abbott’s piece demonstrates that a good risk story, with plenty of attention-getting information about some potential danger that we ought to worry about, can still include information that helps the reader know all of what they need to know to judge just how worried to be. We should criticize risk reporting that is alarmist, and question whether to rely on journalists and media outlets that report that way. But we should praise and support, and rely on, the journalists and news outlets that report risk more responsibly.
What is human dignity? Here's a primer, told through 200 years of great essays, lectures, and novels.
- Human dignity means that each of our lives have an unimpeachable value simply because we are human, and therefore we are deserving of a baseline level of respect.
- That baseline requires more than the absence of violence, discrimination, and authoritarianism. It means giving individuals the freedom to pursue their own happiness and purpose.
- We look at incredible writings from the last 200 years that illustrate the push for human dignity in regards to slavery, equality, communism, free speech and education.
The inherent worth of all human beings<p>Human dignity is the inherent worth of each individual human being. Recognizing human dignity means respecting human beings' special value—value that sets us apart from other animals; value that is intrinsic and cannot be lost.</p> <p>Liberalism—the broad political philosophy that organizes society around liberty, justice, and equality—is rooted in the idea of human dignity. Liberalism assumes each of our lives, plans, and preferences have some unimpeachable value, not because of any objective evaluation or contribution to a greater good, but simply because they belong to a human being. We are human, and therefore deserving of a baseline level of respect. </p> <p>Because so many of us take human dignity for granted—just a fact of our humanness—it's usually only when someone's dignity is ignored or violated that we feel compelled to talk about it. </p> <p>But human dignity means more than the absence of violence, discrimination, and authoritarianism. It means giving individuals the freedom to pursue their own happiness and purpose—a freedom that can be hampered by restrictive social institutions or the tyranny of the majority. The liberal ideal of the good society is not just peaceful but also pluralistic: It is a society in which we respect others' right to think and live differently than we do.</p>
From the 19th century to today<p>With <a href="https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?year_start=1800&year_end=2019&content=human+dignity&corpus=26&smoothing=3&direct_url=t1%3B%2Chuman%20dignity%3B%2Cc0" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Google Books Ngram Viewer</a>, we can chart mentions of human dignity from 1800-2019.</p><img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNDg0ODU0My9vcmlnaW4ucG5nIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY1MTUwMzE4MX0.bu0D_0uQuyNLyJjfRESNhu7twkJ5nxu8pQtfa1w3hZs/img.png?width=980" id="7ef38" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="9974c7bef3812fcb36858f325889e3c6" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
American novelist, writer, playwright, poet, essayist and civil rights activist James Baldwin at his home in Saint-Paul-de-Vence, southern France, on November 6, 1979.
Credit: Ralph Gatti/AFP via Getty Images
The future of dignity<p>Around the world, people are still working toward the full and equal recognition of human dignity. Every year, new speeches and writings help us understand what dignity is—not only what it looks like when dignity is violated but also what it looks like when dignity is honored. In his posthumous essay, Congressman Lewis wrote, "When historians pick up their pens to write the story of the 21st century, let them say that it was your generation who laid down the heavy burdens of hate at last and that peace finally triumphed over violence, aggression and war."</p> <p>The more we talk about human dignity, the better we understand it. And the sooner we can make progress toward a shared vision of peace, freedom, and mutual respect for all. </p>
Scientists find that bursts of gamma rays may exceed the speed of light and cause time-reversibility.
- Astrophysicists propose that gamma-ray bursts may exceed the speed of light.
- The superluminal jets may also be responsible for time-reversibility.
- The finding doesn't go against Einstein's theory because this effect happens in the jet medium not a vacuum.
Jet bursting out of a blazar. Black-hole-powered galaxies called blazars are the most common sources detected by NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.
Cosmic death beams: Understanding gamma ray bursts<div class="rm-shortcode" data-media_id="cu2knVEk" data-player_id="FvQKszTI" data-rm-shortcode-id="c6cfd20fdf31c82cb206ade8ce21ba3f"> <div id="botr_cu2knVEk_FvQKszTI_div" class="jwplayer-media" data-jwplayer-video-src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/cu2knVEk-FvQKszTI.js"> <img src="https://cdn.jwplayer.com/thumbs/cu2knVEk-1920.jpg" class="jwplayer-media-preview" /> </div> <script src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/cu2knVEk-FvQKszTI.js"></script> </div>
Philosophers have been asking the question for hundreds of years. Now neuroscientists are joining the quest to find out.
- The debate over whether or not humans have free will is centuries old and ongoing. While studies have confirmed that our brains perform many tasks without conscious effort, there remains the question of how much we control and when it matters.
- According to Dr. Uri Maoz, it comes down to what your definition of free will is and to learning more about how we make decisions versus when it is ok for our brain to subconsciously control our actions and movements.
- "If we understand the interplay between conscious and unconscious," says Maoz, "it might help us realize what we can control and what we can't."
Puerto Rico's iconic telescope facilitated important scientific discoveries while inspiring young scientists and the public imagination.
- The Arecibo Observatory's main telescope collapsed on Tuesday morning.
- Although officials had been planning to demolish the telescope, the accident marked an unceremonious end to a beloved astronomical tool.
- The Arecibo radio telescope has facilitated many discoveries in astronomy, including the mapping of near-Earth asteroids and the detection of exoplanets.
Bradley Rivera via twitter.com<p>In 1963, the concave dish was built into a natural sinkhole on the northern coast of Puerto Rico. The location was <a href="https://www.space.com/20984-arecibo-observatory.html" target="_blank">picked because it was near the equator,</a> providing scientists a clear view of planets passing overhead, and also of the ionosphere, which is the uniquely reactive layer of Earth's upper atmosphere where the northern lights form.</p><p>Since its construction, scientists have used the Arecibo telescope to map near-Earth asteroids, detect gravitational waves, study pulsars, detect exoplanets and <a href="https://www.seti.org/goodbye-arecibo" target="_blank">search for alien civilizations</a>, among other projects. Here's a brief look at some of the discoveries and accomplishments made using the Arecibo telescope:</p><ul><li>1964: Astronomer <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gordon_Pettengill" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Gordon Pettengill</a> discovers that Mercury's rotation period is 59 days, significantly shorter than the previous prediction of 88 days.</li><li>1974: Physicists Russell Alan Hulse and Joseph Hooton Taylor Jr. discovers the first binary pulsar, for which they won a Nobel Prize in Physics.</li><li>1974: Scientists use the telescope to transmit the "Arecibo message" to <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Globular_Cluster_in_Hercules" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">globular star cluster M13</a>. The message, when translated into image form, contains basic information about humanity and human knowledge: the numbers one to 10, a map of our solar system, an illustration of a human being, and the atomic numbers of certain elements.</li><li>1989: Scientists use the telescope to image an asteroid for the first time.</li><li>1992: Astronomers Alex Wolszczan and Dale Frail become the first to discover exoplanets.</li></ul>
The Google-owned company developed a system that can reliably predict the 3D shapes of proteins.