Re: How do we know who's history is right?
Each of us, in fact, writes his own history, by cherry-picking those bits of pre-existing history cherry-picked and filtered by others, that support our world view.
From extensive study of the JFK assassination (my work is available at patspeer.com) I came to see how people investigating the case, from day one, saw Oswald either as a "patsy"--an ordinary guy put in extraordinary circumstances--or as a psychopathic loser out to make a name for himself. It's clear that those in the upper echelons of society-people who think of themselves as self-made or as "deserving" of their success, resent that a man as poor as Oswald, a Marxist, would have people believe in his innocence. To their minds, Oswald's motive is obvious: he hated himself and his failed life and thought his only chance at making a name for himself was by killing the President.
To others, including myself, this is ludicrous. Of course, Oswald MAY have wanted to kiil Kennedy for personal reasons, but nothing in his behavior indicated as much. He certainly never bragged about killing Kennedy. He even told the cops that killing Kennedy was stupid because Johnson would be no better.
Another factor determining one's view of the assassination is one's respect for expertise and authority. Those holding that Oswald did it most always defer to "experts" of one sort or an other, and attack the expertise of the nay-sayers. If you challenge the experts on some of their conclusions, and even prove these experts incompetent or deceptive (as I myself have done in the videos at patspeer.com) they will not respond to you with facts, but attack your right to question the authority and initegirty of the experts. They will do this even when you show something as simple and obvious as that a doctor testified with his exhibit upside down.
Bottom line: official history is the cumulative guesswork of those with a platform to broadcast their guesses.
Perspectives on history change not because people change their minds so much as that those of one perspective die off and are replaced by people exposed to different platforms.
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Antimicrobial resistance is growing worldwide, rendering many "work horse" medicines ineffective. Without intervention, drug-resistant pathogens could lead to millions of deaths by 2050. Thankfully, companies like Pfizer are taking action.
- Antimicrobial-resistant pathogens are one of the largest threats to global health today.
- As we get older, our immune systems age, increasing our risk of life threatening infections. Without reliable antibiotics, life expectancy could decline for the first time in modern history.
- If antibiotics become ineffective, common infections could result in hospitalization or even death. Life-saving interventions like cancer treatments and organ transplantation would become more difficult, more often resulting in death. Routine procedures would become hard to perform.
- Without intervention, resistant pathogens could result in 10 million annual deaths by 2050.
- By taking a multi-faceted approach—inclusive of adherence to good stewardship, surveillance and responsible manufacturing practices, as well as an emphasis on prevention and treatment—companies like Pfizer are fighting to help curb the spread.
Journalism got a big wake up call in 2016. Can we be optimistic about the future of media?
- "[T]o have a democracy that thrives and actually that manages to stay alive at all, you need regular citizens being able to get good, solid information," says Craig Newmark.
- The only constructive way to deal with fake news? Support trustworthy media. In 2018, Newmark was announced as a major donor of two new media organizations, The City, which will report on New York City-area stories which may have otherwise gone unreported, and The Markup, which will report on technology.
- Greater transparency of fact-checking within media organizations could help confront and correct fake news. Organizations already exist to make media more trustworthy — are we using them? There's The Trust Project, International Fact-Checkers Network, and Tech & Check.
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