Re: how do we know anything?
i'm glad that i'm getting the comments and responsed that i am. Much of what all of you have said i have thought of as well. Now I'm just trying to accept that its ok to live in belief, especially since i've been doing it so long. What i arrived at is that reasoning makes sense because humans learned how to reason from the real world around them. What i mean is humans learned to make sense of their surroundings as a means of survival or whatever else you want to call it. the point is correct reasoning makes sense because it is derived from the objective real world around us. I choose to say objective real world because although i know that we all create our own subjective realities, we all are interpreting the same world. So now i think i can share everything i came up with. First humans possess some innate ability to learn, think, and reason; second we're taught how to think; 3rd we understand basic reasoning through experience and reflection; lastly culture and society also play a role in teaching us to make sense of things. So the basic gist of it is, this world or objective physical reality works a certain way, and we learned to reason from it e.g. you eat a certain plant and get sick so you remember what the plant looks like and remember not to eat plants that look like that again (deductive reasoning). Once we learned basic reasoning we kept expanding our body of "knowledge" or in other words we kept trying to understand and make sense of the world around us. from then on we've kept adding to our understanding of the this reality: our body of knowledge. The short hand version i guess would go something like this: we went from concrete real surroundings to reasoning , to using reasoning discover and create more knowledge.
So one of my original questions was "why do things make sense?", i think the answer is that things make sense because thats how this reality works, and the way this reality works is consistent , otherwise reasoning wouldn't be consistent. I believe the rules of correct reasoning are consistent because all of mans accomplishments would not have been possible without reliable correct reasoning.
Knowledge then is both possible yet impossible, depending on your definition of knowledge. If you consider knowledge to be 100% objective truth, then knowledge is impossible because there's always the chance, no matter how small, that a mistake was made, or we percieved something wrong or whatever. this line of thought suggests that we live in a world of belief, even if that belief is well reasoned and supported by evidence. So i can be 99.9999% confident that something is real, true, and is knowledge but there's still the chance that i'm wrong, hence knowledge is impossible.
Another factor to consider when examining this issue is the question of whether or not this is the only reality or universe or whatever you wanna call it. If it is fine, but what if it's not; do all realities work the ways this one does? if they don't does that mean that knowledge in this reality isn't knowledge in other realities, because if other realities work differently that would imply that reasoning is also different in that world, and that knowlege is different there is as well. Now of course this all somewhat irrelevant because the only reality that has an affect on my well being and happiness is this one but please feel free to respond and comment without holding back
Research in plant neurobiology shows that plants have senses, intelligence and emotions.
- The field of plant neurobiology studies the complex behavior of plants.
- Plants were found to have 15-20 senses, including many like humans.
- Some argue that plants may have awareness and intelligence, while detractors persist.
E-cigarettes may be safer than traditional cigarettes, but they come with their own risks.
- A new study used an MRI machine to examine how vaping e-cigarettes affects users' cardiovascular systems immediately after inhalation.
- The results showed that vaping causes impaired circulation, stiffer arteries and less oxygen in their blood.
- The new study adds to a growing body of research showing that e-cigarettes – while likely safer than traditional cigarettes – are far from harmless.
Since the idea of locality is dead, space itself may not be an aloof vacuum: Something welds things together, even at great distances.
- Realists believe that there is an exactly understandable way the world is — one that describes processes independent of our intervention. Anti-realists, however, believe realism is too ambitious — too hard. They believe we pragmatically describe our interactions with nature — not truths that are independent of us.
- In nature, properties of Particle B may be depend on what we choose to measure or manipulate with Particle A, even at great distances.
- In quantum mechanics, there is no explanation for this. "It just comes out that way," says Smolin. Realists struggle with this because it would imply certain things can travel faster than light, which still seems improbable.