from the world's big
What is the Halliburton loophole?
A loophole signed into law during the Bush administration has been fiendishly tough to close.
- In 2005, then-Vice President Dick Cheney was head of the Energy Task Force. This task force provided recommendations that informed the Energy Policy Act of 2005.
- One such recommendation that was later signed into law was to provide an exemption for hydraulic fracturing fluid (or fracking fluid) from being regulated by the EPA.
- Cheney previously served as CEO of Halliburton, which just so happens to be the world's largest provider of fracking services.
In 2005, the 109th United States Congress passed the Energy Policy Act. Like any major bill, its provisions ranged from the useful (like authorizing tax credits for alternative energy producers), the questionably effective (like extending daylight savings time for a few weeks), and the downright counterproductive (like incentivizing the use of coal as an energy source).
The act also included an exemption that fell firmly in the latter category that would later become known as the Halliburton loophole. This loophole amended the Safe Drinking Water Act — a major tool the EPA uses to keep our drinking water clean — to provide an exemption for the fluids used in hydraulic fracturing (or fracking). As a result, the EPA does not have the legal authority to regulate fracking fluids.
This exemption came to be as a result of a recommendation by the Energy Task Force, an organization formed by then-President George Bush and headed by then-Vice President Dick Cheney, former CEO of Halliburton, which coincidentally also first patented fracking and is the largest provider of fracking services in the world. Hence, the "Halliburton loophole."
How does fracking work?
A fracking site located in the Permian Basin oil field outside the town of Midland, Texas. Photo credit: Spencer Platt / Getty Images
The purpose of fracking is to increase the rate at which oil and gas flows to wells, and often, it's the only economical way of obtaining oil and gas reserves. It's especially used in places where the gas is widely dispersed, such as in shale or tight sands.
Fracking companies drill a deep hole in the earth, up to 20,000 feet deep. Modern fracking also involves horizontal drilling, which reduces the need for multiple vertical holes since one horizontal borehole can access more material. This hole is fitted with a steel pipe full of strategically placed perforations. High-pressure fracking fluid is shot through the pipe, splitting off along the perforations and cracking the surrounding rock. These cracks expedite the flow of oil and gas to nearby wells, enabling the collection of more resources than would otherwise be possible.
The trouble is, fracking fluid is composed of some truly nasty stuff, and a single operation can use several million gallons of it. The biggest component of fracking fluid is water, at about 90 percent. Another 9.5 percent consists of sand or a similar material called a proppant, which fills the fractures and holds them open against the weight of the earth. That last 0.5 percent of material is what's worrisome. This component is a mix of chemicals used for a variety of purposes in the fluid. It may not seem like much, but the vast quantities of fluid required for a fracking operation means that between 80 and 330 tons of chemicals are used each time. The most up-to-date review of these chemicals, conducted by the EPA between 2005 and 2013, identified 1,084 different kinds of chemicals used in fracking operations, though a single operation is likely to only use between 4 and 28.
These include arsenic, formaldehyde, mercury, and other substances that have been linked to reproductive and developmental health issues, that may cause cancer, or that have unknown effects on human health [PDF]. And, of course, fracking fluids have potential effects on wildlife as well.
The industry's argument is that fracking fluids are handled in a safe manner, are recovered as much as possible, and are dispersed so deep underground that they couldn't possible leach into groundwater, which is typically closer to the surface than oil and gas deposits. The evidence, however, does not back this up.
What effects has fracking had?
The last major review of fracking was conducted by the EPA in 2016. Between 2006 and 2012, the EPA collected reports on 151 separate spills from 11 states, with the amount of spilled fluid ranging from just 5 gallons to over 19,000 gallons. Not all of these were just water or the mixed fracking fluid, either: some of these spills "were often described as acids, biocides, friction reducers, crosslinkers, gels, and blended hydraulic fracturing fluid, but few specific chemicals were mentioned."
Furthermore, 13 of these 151 spills were observed to have reached surface waters. However, the report authors warn that even spills that occurred far from a known body of water may have seeped into the ground and polluted the groundwater if they occurred on more permeable soil.
Even if the fluid is handled appropriately, it's still ultimately being blasted into the earth. The targets of fracking are often far below groundwater resources, but faulty boreholes can leak fracking fluids into near-surface groundwater.
In any case, there is evidence that fracking fluids have polluted groundwater before: Bainbridge Township in Ohio's drinking water became polluted with methane after a fracking operation; fracking fluids were found in the water in Killdeer, North Dakota, and 133 additional instances throughout Texas where towns' water supply were polluted with methane. Numerous other examples of chemicals linked to fracking practices finding their way into drinking water exist.
This doesn't even account for fracking's impact on earthquake severity and frequency, land use, and water use. Because it's such a potentially harmful activity, some states have independently established their own regulations, though these have been criticized as being largely ineffective. Thanks to the Halliburton loophole, there is still a significant lack of federal regulation over an activity whose known effects are deleterious and which still remains largely unquantified.
The Fracturing Responsibility and Awareness of Chemicals Act (or the FRAC Act) purports to close this loophole. Although it has been introduced in congress multiple times since 2009, it has yet to be signed into law. Until it or similar legislation is passed, we'll have to let the fracking industry eat its cake and have it too.
Ever since we've had the technology, we've looked to the stars in search of alien life. It's assumed that we're looking because we want to find other life in the universe, but what if we're looking to make sure there isn't any?
Here's an equation, and a rather distressing one at that: N = R* × fP × ne × f1 × fi × fc × L. It's the Drake equation, and it describes the number of alien civilizations in our galaxy with whom we might be able to communicate. Its terms correspond to values such as the fraction of stars with planets, the fraction of planets on which life could emerge, the fraction of planets that can support intelligent life, and so on. Using conservative estimates, the minimum result of this equation is 20. There ought to be 20 intelligent alien civilizations in the Milky Way that we can contact and who can contact us. But there aren't any.
Building a personal connection with students can counteract some negative side effects of remote learning.
- Not being able to engage with students in-person due to the pandemic has presented several new challenges for educators, both technical and social. Digital tools have changed the way we all think about learning, but George Couros argues that more needs to be done to make up for what has been lost during "emergency remote teaching."
- One interesting way he has seen to bridge that gap and strengthen teacher-student and student-student relationships is through an event called Identity Day. Giving students the opportunity to share something they are passionate about makes them feel more connected and gets them involved in their education.
- "My hope is that we take these skills and these abilities we're developing through this process and we actually become so much better for our kids when we get back to our face-to-face setting," Couros says. He adds that while no one can predict the future, we can all do our part to adapt to it.
Frequent shopping for single items adds to our carbon footprint.
- A new study shows e-commerce sites like Amazon leave larger greenhouse gas footprints than retail stores.
- Ordering online from retail stores has an even smaller footprint than going to the store yourself.
- Greening efforts by major e-commerce sites won't curb wasteful consumer habits. Consolidating online orders can make a difference.
A pile of recycled cardboard sits on the ground at Recology's Recycle Central on January 4, 2018 in San Francisco, California.
Photo by Justin Sullivan/Getty Images<p>A large part of the reason is speed. In a competitive market, pure players use the equation, <em>speed + convenience</em>, to drive adoption. This is especially relevant to the "last mile" GHG footprint: the distance between the distribution center and the consumer.</p><p>Interestingly, the smallest GHG footprint occurs when you order directly from a physical store—even smaller than going there yourself. Pure players, such as Amazon, are the greatest offenders. Variables like geographic location matter; the team looked at shopping in the UK, the US, China, and the Netherlands. </p><p>Sadegh Shahmohammadi, a PhD student at the Netherlands' Radboud University and corresponding author of the paper, <a href="https://www.cnn.com/2020/02/26/tech/greenhouse-gas-emissions-retail/index.html" target="_blank">says</a> the above "pattern holds true in countries where people mostly drive. It really depends on the country and consumer behavior there."</p><p>The researchers write that this year-and-a-half long study pushes back on previous research that claims online shopping to be better in terms of GHG footprints.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"They have, however, compared the GHG emissions per shopping event and did not consider the link between the retail channels and the basket size, which leads to a different conclusion than that of the current study."</p><p>Online retail is where convenience trumps environment: people tend to order one item at a time when shopping on pure player sites, whereas they stock up on multiple items when visiting a store. Consumers will sometimes order a number of separate items over the course of a week rather than making one trip to purchase everything they need. </p><p>While greening efforts by online retailers are important, until a shift in consumer attitude changes, the current carbon footprint will be a hard obstacle to overcome. Amazon is trying to have it both ways—carbon-free and convenience addicted—and the math isn't adding up. If you need to order things, do it online, but try to consolidate your purchases as much as possible.</p><p>--</p><p><em>Stay in touch with Derek on <a href="http://www.twitter.com/derekberes" target="_blank">Twitter</a>, <a href="https://www.facebook.com/DerekBeresdotcom" target="_blank">Facebook</a> and <a href="https://derekberes.substack.com/" target="_blank">Substack</a>. His next book is</em> "<em>Hero's Dose: The Case For Psychedelics in Ritual and Therapy."</em></p>
Chronic irregular sleep in children was associated with psychotic experiences in adolescence, according to a recent study out of the University of Birmingham's School of Psychology.