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Elephants are now being hunted for their skin, being turned into 'ruby'-like jewelry
With the ivory trade on the decline, poachers have been capitalizing on a new, disturbing trend.
- At the start of 2018, China banned all ivory products within its borders. As one of the largest markets for ivory, this represented a significant win for conservationists.
- However, just as the ivory trade declined, a new demand for elephant skin emerged.
- The skin is used in medicine and to make jewelry. What options are there for combating this dangerous new trend?
For hundreds of years, the biggest threat to the largest land mammals on Earth, elephants, was the ivory trade. As demand for their tusks increased in modern times, the industry became a major — not to mention unsustainable — threat to their wild populations. Between 1979 and 1989, for instance, demand for ivory cut the African elephant population down from 1.3 million to 600,000.
The ivory trade took a serious blow in 1989, though, when the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) banned international trade in African elephant ivory, a move that followed up the 1975 ban on trading Asian elephant ivory. Poaching continued to be an issue, particularly since there was still considerable demand in the Chinese market, where ivory was used in medicine and ornaments. But, in 2018, there was another bit of good news: China banned the trade of all ivory and ivory products.
Out of the frying pan and into the fire
This was certainly a victory for conservationists, but it seems that elephants can't catch a break. Starting around 2014, Asian elephants have been poached for their skin.
A 2018 report from Elephant Family, a U.K.-based non-profit, found that the main market for elephant skin was located in China, where it is primarily used for two purposes: It's ground down into a powder for use in traditional medicinal products, and it's shaped in polished beads for bracelets and necklaces. Belinda Stewart-Cox, the director of conservation at the non-profit Elephant Conservation Network, explains:
"If you look at [the beads], you think they look like garnets, rubies or some kind of red stone. But those subcutaneous layers [in the skin] include a lot of blood vessels, so there's a lot of blood in that. Those beads look ruby red because they contain blood."
A young Sumatran elephant in Aceh. Photo credit: Khalis Surry / Anadolu Agency via Getty Images
In many ways, this trade is even more destructive than the ivory trade. First, it primarily targets Asian elephants, which were already more at risk than African elephants. Today, there are only about 50,000 wild Asian elephants left. In addition, ivory poaching could only target elephants who could grow tusks — among Asian elephants, adult males only grow tusks roughly 25 percent of the time — but skin poaching is indiscriminate.
Aside from the innate tragedy of losing one of Earth's largest land mammals, it would be an ecological disaster if the Asian elephant were to go extinct. Asian elephants are sometimes referred to as the "gardeners of the forest," as they eat plants that would otherwise grow wild, they create paths through the forest for other animals to move through and for new plant life to grow in, and they distribute seeds through their dung, which also has the added benefit of fertilizing the soil and providing homes and nutrients for a variety of insect species.
Unfortunately, it is not easy for elephants to recover from a major blow to their population. As a large species, elephants do not have many offspring, and the gestational period for one elephant is around 22 months. And while ivory poaching mainly targeted the males, now female elephants are also viable targets for poachers, further hampering these animals' ability to bounce back.
Asian elephants are listed in Appendix I of CITES, meaning that all products derived from these elephants is prohibited except for non-commercial purposes, like scientific research. Despite this, however, China's State Forestry Administration is issuing licenses for the manufacture and sale of pharmaceutical products containing elephant skin.
However, China's ban on the ivory trade indicates that similar regulation can be implemented and work in the future. After significant public support, notably including Chinese basketball star Yao Ming, China implemented its ban on the ivory trade at the start of 2018. A survey of Chinese individuals indicated that after the ban came into effect, 72 percent of Chinese respondents would not buy ivory, compared to 50 percent when the poll was conducted the year prior, before the ban was applied.
A number of non-profits are working to raise awareness of this issue and to bring it to the attention of international bodies, such as CITES. Elephant Family, for example, presented its 2018 report to CITES, gaining approval from the European Union and the U.S. for amendments, such as requiring investigations into illegal trade and implementation reporting. The World Wildlife Fund, too, is equipping and training rangers to stop poaching in Myanmar, where this crisis is particularly dire. With any luck and with greater public awareness and engagement, we can drive poaching, rather than elephants, to extinction.
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Construction of the $500 billion dollar tech city-state of the future is moving ahead.
- The futuristic megacity Neom is being built in Saudi Arabia.
- The city will be fully automated, leading in health, education and quality of life.
- It will feature an artificial moon, cloud seeding, robotic gladiators and flying taxis.
The Red Sea area where Neom will be built:
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Are we genetically inclined for superstition or just fearful of the truth?
- From secret societies to faked moon landings, one thing that humanity seems to have an endless supply of is conspiracy theories. In this compilation, physicist Michio Kaku, science communicator Bill Nye, psychologist Sarah Rose Cavanagh, skeptic Michael Shermer, and actor and playwright John Cameron Mitchell consider the nature of truth and why some groups believe the things they do.
- "I think there's a gene for superstition, a gene for hearsay, a gene for magic, a gene for magical thinking," argues Kaku. The theoretical physicist says that science goes against "natural thinking," and that the superstition gene persists because, one out of ten times, it actually worked and saved us.
- Other theories shared include the idea of cognitive dissonance, the dangerous power of fear to inhibit critical thinking, and Hollywood's romanticization of conspiracies. Because conspiracy theories are so diverse and multifaceted, combating them has not been an easy task for science.
A growing body of research suggests COVID-19 can cause serious neurological problems.
- The new study seeks to track the health of 50,000 people who have tested positive for COVID-19.
- The study aims to explore whether the disease causes cognitive impairment and other conditions.
- Recent research suggests that COVID-19 can, directly or indirectly, cause brain dysfunction, strokes, nerve damage and other neurological problems.
Brain images of a patient with acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis.
COVID-19 and the brain<p>A growing body of research reveals alarming neurological complications among COVID-19 patients. On Wednesday, for example, researchers from University College London published a <a href="https://academic.oup.com/brain/article/doi/10.1093/brain/awaa240/5868408" target="_blank">study</a> in the journal Brain that describes how some patients have suffered temporary brain dysfunction, strokes, nerve damage, and other neurological problems concurrent with COVID-19.</p><p>Some patients suffered brain inflammation as a result of a rare disease called acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, which can cause numbness, seizures, and confusion. One patient in the study even hallucinated monkeys and lions in her home.</p>
Photo by Mario Tama/Getty Images<p>A separate study published in the <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7198407/" target="_blank">Journal of Clinical Neuroscience</a> notes that some COVID-19 patients have also suffered neurological complications like impaired consciousness and acute cerebrovascular disease. The study notes that past viruses like MERS and SARS also seemed to cause neurological problems.</p><p>A troubling finding among this growing body of research is that some patients seem to suffer neurological damage even when respiratory symptoms aren't obvious. Additionally, scientists aren't sure whether damage from the disease will be permanent.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"Given that the disease has only been around for a matter of months, we might not yet know what long-term damage COVID-19 can cause," Dr. Ross Paterson, joint first author of the University College London study, said in a <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-07/ucl-iid070620.php" target="_blank">press release</a>. "Doctors needs to be aware of possible neurological effects, as early diagnosis can improve patient outcomes."</p><p>If you've been diagnosed with COVID-19 and want to enroll in the study, visit <a href="https://www.cambridgebrainsciences.com/studies/covid-brain-study" target="_blank">cambridgebrainsciences.com/studies/covid-brain-study</a>.</p>
Coronavirus layoffs are a glimpse into our automated future. We need to build better education opportunities now so Americans can find work in the economy of tomorrow.