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The internet’s top 12 coronavirus-related questions, answered
Flattening the curve on panic and disinformation.
- With mixed messages coming from our leaders, Americans have turned to the internet to answer their COVID-19 questions.
- We explore the top 12 coronavirus questions, according to Google Trends.
- When seeking answers, it is important to prioritize evidence-based information from credible sources.
It seems the only thing spreading faster than coronavirus is panic and disinformation. With mixed messages and conflicting reports coming from leaders, Americans have turned to the internet to address their most pressing concerns.
According to Google Trends, here are the coronavirus-related questions Americans want answers to the most.
1) What is coronavirus/COVID-19?
Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses known to cause illness in humans and animals. In people, they are responsible for a range of respiratory infections. Some are as mild as the common cold, while more severe infections include Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS).
This most recent strain of coronavirus is severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It gives rise to COVID-19, the disease causing the current pandemic.
This new strain was first discovered in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Scientists believe it originated in bats and may have leaped to humans through an intermediate, likely a pangolin, at a Chinese wet market. Despite conspiracy theories claiming the virus was engineered in a laboratory, no evidence exists to suggest such an origin.
COVID-19 symptoms may appear 2–14 days after exposure and include fever, cough, and shortness of breath. In children, the symptoms are reported to be cold-like. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends immediate medical attention if you develop emergency warning signs. These include trouble breathing, confusion, inability to arouse, bluish lips or face, or persistent pain in the chest.
2) How many cases of coronavirus in the U.S./my state?
A map showing the U.S. COVID-19 outbreak as of March 18, 2020.
For national numbers, we recommend checking the CDC's website, which is updated at noon, Mondays through Fridays. As of this writing, the United States had 54,453 total cases resulting in 737 deaths.
If you are looking closer to home, visit your state or local health department websites. Local health department websites are the best resources for news and recommendations specific to your area. They can inform you about public health guidance, school closures, local COVID-19 test information, and what to do should you or a loved one develop symptoms.
3) When will coronavirus peak in the U.S.?
The honest answer: We don't know. There are too many variables at play. For example, much remains unknown about the virus—such as how seasonal change alters its spread or why infected children rarely become critically ill—and epidemiologists don't know how many Americans have been infected due to limited testing that has lagged well behind other countries.
"It depends if a week from now, we look like Italy or South Korea," Caitlin Rivers, an epidemiologist at the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security, told the Washington Post.
As reported by the New York Times, Columbia University researchers modeled how the U.S. outbreak may evolve. They proposed three scenarios for how the outbreak could spread (based on what is currently known).
With no control measures, the U.S. could see 500,000 new cases per day by mid-May. With some control measures, new cases could be restrained to about 300,000 new cases per day by mid-June. If severe control measures are taken, we could hinder the outbreak to a few thousand per day throughout the summer.
Although we can't answer this question with certainty, we should prepare for the current state to last for weeks, maybe months. And even after the first wave, it's possible for a second or third wave of outbreaks to follow.
"For a while, life is not going to be the way it used to be in the United States," Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, told CNN. "We have to just accept that if we want to do what's best for the American public."
4) Is coronavirus airborne?
Coronavirus may stay airborne, but it mainly spreads person-to-person through respiratory droplets like those produced in a sneeze.
There are conflicting reports as to whether the new coronavirus can remain airborne. As reported by Stat, some studies suggest the new coronavirus can exist as an aerosol—a liquid (fog) or solid (virus) that suspends in the air—under certain conditions and for a limited amount of time. One study suggests the virus can drift for about a half-hour. Another suggests up to three hours.
However, other research has found no airborne coronavirus in hospital rooms of COVID-19 patients. This research suggests the virus can stay airborne only long enough for the respiratory droplets to be pulled down by gravity. A few seconds at most.
"I think the answer will be, aerosolization occurs rarely but not never," Stanley Perlman, a microbiologist at the University of Iowa, told Stat. "You have to distinguish between what's possible and what's actually happening."
Coronavirus may be able to stay airborne for a time; however, it mainly spreads person-to-person or through infected surfaces. Once the virus does come to rest, it can live on surfaces for much longer than in the air. It can linger on copper for four hours, cardboard for a day, and plastics and stainless steel for two to three days.
5) How do I sew a face mask?
Update April 3, 2020: The CDC has updated its face masks guidelines in light of recent studies that suggest cloth face coverings can help slow the spread of coronavirus. The CDC now recommends people wear cloth face masks "in public settings where other social distancing measures are difficult to maintain (e.g., grocery stores and pharmacies)" and "especially in areas of significant community-based transmission" [emphasis original]. The face masks recommended are not N-95 respirators, which should be reserved for health care workers. People who wear cloth face masks, the CDC notes, should still take other precautions such as maintaining six-feet distance and washing hands.
Generally, you don't need to sew a face mask, but there are many tutorials available on YouTube. According to the CDC, handmade face masks are not considered personal protective equipment and how well they protect against coronavirus, if at all, is unknown.
Some hospitals and healthcare facilities have requested donations of handmade masks as N95 respirators face a critical shortage. Even then, the CDC only recommends its use for patient care as a last resort. The agency urges healthcare professionals who choose this option to exercise caution and only use hand-sewn masks in combination with a face shield that covers the entire face.
If you want to donate handmade face masks, follow the instructions on your local healthcare facility's website.
Whether you choose to wear a handmade mask is up to you, but only do so with a clear understanding of the limitations.
Don't assume you are protected from coronavirus; such presumptions can put you and others at risk. You need to take every precaution with a handmade face mask that you would without one—wash hands, don't touch your face, avoid close contact, stay home if sick, etc.
Don't assume adding additional filters or filtering materials improves protection. There is no evidence to suggest this is true. Finally, don't assume any handmade mask came from a sterile environment. Wash it before use.
6) What are the rules under shelter-in-place?
Under shelter-in-place orders, non-essential businesses have closed, while essential businesses have modified how they operate to promote social distancing.
Shelter-in-place orders are public announcements that set restrictions and protocols based on a public threat. They can be announced in response to mass shootings, natural disasters, and, in this case, pandemics. Despite some conspiracy theories out there, they are not a form of martial law.
Shelter-in-place orders in response to the coronavirus have been issued with social distancing in mind. Non-essential businesses have been shuttered, while residents have been asked to stay in their homes unless traveling for essential tasks, such as going to work or to buy groceries. Exercise outside of the house is encouraged if people keep their distance.
These orders are enforceable. California's stay-at-home order, for example, cites that violators can be charged with a misdemeanor, which could result in a fine up to $1,000 and six months in jail. However, such enforcement presents a myriad of obstacles, cannot be thorough, and will likely not occur.
During a press conference, California Governor Gavin Newsom stated that "social pressure" is the preferred method of enforcement. "I don't believe the people of California need to be told through law enforcement that it's appropriate just to home isolate," he said.
7) Are restaurants/grocery stores open?
For the most part, yes. Shelter-in-place orders allow essential businesses to continue operating. According to the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency, there are 16 critical infrastructure sectors. These include energy, transportation, communications, healthcare, and food and agriculture.
While local guidelines may differ, most will be similar. Washington's shelter-in-place order, for example, allows grocery stores, pharmacies, farmers markets, and even corner stores to stay open. Restaurants can operate, but they cannot let patrons dine in. Only carry-outs and deliveries are permitted. New York City's shelter-in-place order has the same stipulations.
8) Can I be evicted during a national emergency?
HUD has authorized an immediate moratorium on foreclosures, while state governments attempt to prevent renter evictions.
Foreclosures and evictions can still happen during a national emergency; however, agencies and state governments are taking steps to prevent an impending spike in evictions.
The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development has authorized an immediate freeze on foreclosures and evictions for single-family homeowners with FHA-insured mortgages. The moratorium will be in effect for the next 60 days.
The National Multifamily Housing Council and National Apartment Association sent a letter to Congress advocating for housing assistance measures such as emergency rental assistance, mortgage forbearance, and eviction prevention.
Meanwhile, state governments and local agencies have seen a deluge of action to impede homelessness. As reported by the New York Times, the Miami-Dade police said they wouldn't carry out evictions, a New York State judge declared no eviction cases would be considered in court, and a California executive order freed cities to create eviction moratoriums.
"The very least policymakers can do during a national health emergency is ensure that more people are not pushed into homelessness through evictions or foreclosures, particularly when our collective protection against the spread of the illness depends on our ability to self-isolate at home," Diane Yentel, President and CEO of the National Low Income Housing Coalition, told the Times in an interview.
9) What jobs are hiring right now?
While many businesses have been forced to shutter their doors, some companies are ramping up hiring. As reported by Fortune, most of these are in sectors experiencing pandemic-induced demand. GE Healthcare, for example, needs staff to meet the demand for ventilators and critical medical supplies.
More locally, major retailers are hiring to maintain staff and supply-chain flow. These include drugstores such as CVS and Walgreens; grocery store chains such as Albertsons, Kroger, and Instacart; and, of course, major retailers such as Amazon and Walmart.
Many of these jobs are temporary positions, but they may help families weather the outbreak until business returns to something more in-line with normal.
10) When are taxes due in the U.S.?
Americans now have until July 15 to file their federal taxes.
On March 21, the Treasury Department and Internal Revenue Service announced an extension for federal income tax filings. The new due date is July 15, giving Americans an extra three months to put off filing their tax returns. Federal income tax payments due on April 15 have received the same extension, without penalties or interest.
"Even with the filing deadline extended, we urge taxpayers who are owed refunds to file as soon as possible and file electronically," IRS Commissioner Chuck Rettig said in a release.
He added: "Filing electronically with direct deposit is the quickest way to get refunds. Although we are curtailing some operations during this period, the IRS is continuing with mission-critical operations to support the nation, and that includes accepting tax returns and sending refunds."
Americans do not need to file additional forms to qualify; however, those who need additional time beyond July 15 will need to make an extension request.
11) Who will receive stimulus checks?
As of this writing, no one. On March 24, the Senate voted against the Coronavirus Act, Relief, and Economic Security Act (CARES Act) for the second time. The bill requires 60 votes to advance, and Republicans and Democrats are currently at loggerheads over provisions. On March 25, partisan bickering gave way to a potential deal, but the Senate has yet to finalize and pass the bill.
According to the think tank Tax Foundation, in its current form, the bill would provide a recover rebate for individual taxpayers in the form of a $1,200 refundable tax credit ($2,400 for joint payers). Families will also receive $500 per child.
However, that rebate phases out as an individual's income goes up. The phase out begins at $75,000 for individuals, $112,500 for heads of household, and $150,000 for joint payers. It lessens the rebate by $50 per every addition $1,000 earned. The rebate phases out entirely at $99,000 (individuals) and $198,000 (join payers).
Tax Foundation estimates this will decrease federal revenue by $301 billion.
12) Are U.S. Senators in quarantine?
Senator Rand Paul did test positive for coronavirus. While he is in self-quarantine today, he did not quarantine himself while awaiting his test results. He interacted closely with other senators and reportedly even took a dip in the Senate swimming pool.
Because of their interactions with Paul, Senators Mike Lee and Mitt Romney have also entered self-quarantine, though they are not showing symptoms. Senators Cory Gardner and Rick Scott have self-quarantined as well, though their potential exposure is not related to Paul.
Despite these absences, as of this writing, Congress remains in session.
A time questions and concerns
Of course, there are many other questions left to be answered, but be careful where you find those answers. Don't listen to hearsay or let social media memes inform your decisions. Be wary of snake oil salesmen looking to make a quick buck on panic and disinformation.
Instead, get your information from the CDC's coronavirus website, state and local health departments, and reliable news outlets like NPR, the New York Times, and the Wall Street Journal.
Stay healthy, stay safe.
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Northwell Health is using insights from website traffic to forecast COVID-19 hospitalizations two weeks in the future.
- The machine-learning algorithm works by analyzing the online behavior of visitors to the Northwell Health website and comparing that data to future COVID-19 hospitalizations.
- The tool, which uses anonymized data, has so far predicted hospitalizations with an accuracy rate of 80 percent.
- Machine-learning tools are helping health-care professionals worldwide better constrain and treat COVID-19.
The value of forecasting<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNTA0Njk2OC9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYyMzM2NDQzOH0.rid9regiDaKczCCKBsu7wrHkNQ64Vz_XcOEZIzAhzgM/img.jpg?width=980" id="2bb93" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="31345afbdf2bd408fd3e9f31520c445a" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" data-width="1546" data-height="1056" />
Northwell emergency departments use the dashboard to monitor in real time.
Credit: Northwell Health<p>One unique benefit of forecasting COVID-19 hospitalizations is that it allows health systems to better prepare, manage and allocate resources. For example, if the tool forecasted a surge in COVID-19 hospitalizations in two weeks, Northwell Health could begin:</p><ul><li>Making space for an influx of patients</li><li>Moving personal protective equipment to where it's most needed</li><li>Strategically allocating staff during the predicted surge</li><li>Increasing the number of tests offered to asymptomatic patients</li></ul><p>The health-care field is increasingly using machine learning. It's already helping doctors develop <a href="https://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/early/2020/06/09/dc19-1870" target="_blank">personalized care plans for diabetes patients</a>, improving cancer screening techniques, and enabling mental health professionals to better predict which patients are at <a href="https://healthitanalytics.com/news/ehr-data-fuels-accurate-predictive-analytics-for-suicide-risk" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">elevated risk of suicide</a>, to name a few applications.</p><p>Health systems around the world have already begun exploring how <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7315944/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">machine learning can help battle the pandemic</a>, including better COVID-19 screening, diagnosis, contact tracing, and drug and vaccine development.</p><p>Cruzen said these kinds of tools represent a shift in how health systems can tackle a wide variety of problems.</p><p>"Health care has always used the past to predict the future, but not in this mathematical way," Cruzen said. "I think [Northwell Health's new predictive tool] really is a great first example of how we should be attacking a lot of things as we go forward."</p>
Making machine-learning tools openly accessible<p>Northwell Health has made its predictive tool <a href="https://github.com/northwell-health/covid-web-data-predictor" target="_blank">available for free</a> to any health system that wishes to utilize it.</p><p>"COVID is everybody's problem, and I think developing tools that can be used to help others is sort of why people go into health care," Dr. Cruzen said. "It was really consistent with our mission."</p><p>Open collaboration is something the world's governments and health systems should be striving for during the pandemic, said Michael Dowling, Northwell Health's president and CEO.</p><p>"Whenever you develop anything and somebody else gets it, they improve it and they continue to make it better," Dowling said. "As a country, we lack data. I believe very, very strongly that we should have been and should be now working with other countries, including China, including the European Union, including England and others to figure out how to develop a health surveillance system so you can anticipate way in advance when these things are going to occur."</p><p>In all, Northwell Health has treated more than 112,000 COVID patients. During the pandemic, Dowling said he's seen an outpouring of goodwill, collaboration, and sacrifice from the community and the tens of thousands of staff who work across Northwell.</p><p>"COVID has changed our perspective on everything—and not just those of us in health care, because it has disrupted everybody's life," Dowling said. "It has demonstrated the value of community, how we help one another."</p>
Scientists used CT scanning and 3D-printing technology to re-create the voice of Nesyamun, an ancient Egyptian priest.
- Scientists printed a 3D replica of the vocal tract of Nesyamun, an Egyptian priest whose mummified corpse has been on display in the UK for two centuries.
- With the help of an electronic device, the reproduced voice is able to "speak" a vowel noise.
- The team behind the "Voices of the Past" project suggest reproducing ancient voices could make museum experiences more dynamic.
Howard et al.<p style="margin-left: 20px;">"While this approach has wide implications for heritage management/museum display, its relevance conforms exactly to the ancient Egyptians' fundamental belief that 'to speak the name of the dead is to make them live again'," they wrote in a <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-56316-y#Fig3" target="_blank">paper</a> published in Nature Scientific Reports. "Given Nesyamun's stated desire to have his voice heard in the afterlife in order to live forever, the fulfilment of his beliefs through the synthesis of his vocal function allows us to make direct contact with ancient Egypt by listening to a sound from a vocal tract that has not been heard for over 3000 years, preserved through mummification and now restored through this new technique."</p>
Connecting modern people with history<p>It's not the first time scientists have "re-created" an ancient human's voice. In 2016, for example, Italian researchers used software to <a href="https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/hear-recreated-voice-otzi-iceman-180960570/" target="_blank">reconstruct the voice of Ötzi,</a> an iceman who was discovered in 1991 and is thought to have died more than 5,000 years ago. But the "Voices of the Past" project is different, the researchers note, because Nesyamun's mummified corpse is especially well preserved.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"It was particularly suited, given its age and preservation [of its soft tissues], which is unusual," Howard told <em><a href="https://www.livescience.com/amp/ancient-egypt-mummy-voice-reconstructed.html" target="_blank">Live Science</a>.</em></p><p>As to whether Nesyamun's reconstructed voice will ever be able to speak complete sentences, Howard told <em><a href="https://abcnews.go.com/Weird/wireStory/ancient-voice-scientists-recreate-sound-egyptian-mummy-68482015" target="_blank">The Associated Press</a>, </em>that it's "something that is being worked on, so it will be possible one day."</p><p>John Schofield, an archaeologist at the University of York, said that reproducing voices from history can make museum experiences "more multidimensional."</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"There is nothing more personal than someone's voice," he told <em>The Associated Press.</em> "So we think that hearing a voice from so long ago will be an unforgettable experience, making heritage places like Karnak, Nesyamun's temple, come alive."</p>
New research suggests you can't fake your emotional state to improve your work life — you have to feel it.
What is deep acting?<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNTQ1NDk2OS9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYxNTY5MzA0Nn0._s7aP25Es1CInq51pbzGrUj3GtOIRWBHZxCBFnbyXY8/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=333%2C-1%2C333%2C-1&height=700" id="ddf09" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="9dc42c4d6a8e372ad7b72907b46ecd3f" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" data-width="1245" data-height="700" />
Arlie Russell Hochschild (pictured) laid out the concept of emotional labor in her 1983 book, "The Managed Heart."
Credit: Wikimedia Commons<p>Deep and surface acting are the principal components of emotional labor, a buzz phrase you have likely seen flitting about the Twittersphere. Today, "<a href="https://www.bbc.co.uk/bbcthree/article/5ea9f140-f722-4214-bb57-8b84f9418a7e" target="_blank">emotional labor</a>" has been adopted by groups as diverse as family counselors, academic feminists, and corporate CEOs, and each has redefined it with a patented spin. But while the phrase has splintered into a smorgasbord of pop-psychological arguments, its initial usage was more specific.</p><p>First coined by sociologist Arlie Russell Hochschild in her 1983 book, "<a href="https://www.ucpress.edu/book/9780520272941/the-managed-heart" target="_blank">The Managed Heart</a>," emotional labor describes the work we do to regulate our emotions on the job. Hochschild's go-to example is the flight attendant, who is tasked with being "nicer than natural" to enhance the customer experience. While at work, flight attendants are expected to smile and be exceedingly helpful even if they are wrestling with personal issues, the passengers are rude, and that one kid just upchucked down the center aisle. Hochschild's counterpart to the flight attendant is the bill collector, who must instead be "nastier than natural."</p><p>Such personas may serve an organization's mission or commercial interests, but if they cause emotional dissonance, they can potentially lead to high emotional costs for the employee—bringing us back to deep and surface acting.</p><p>Deep acting is the process by which people modify their emotions to match their expected role. Deep actors still encounter the negative emotions, but they devise ways to <a href="http://www.selfinjury.bctr.cornell.edu/perch/resources/what-is-emotion-regulationsinfo-brief.pdf" target="_blank">regulate those emotions</a> and return to the desired state. Flight attendants may modify their internal state by talking through harsh emotions (say, with a coworker), focusing on life's benefits (next stop Paris!), physically expressing their desired emotion (smiling and deep breaths), or recontextualizing an inauspicious situation (not the kid's fault he got sick).</p><p>Conversely, surface acting occurs when employees display ersatz emotions to match those expected by their role. These actors are the waiters who smile despite being crushed by the stress of a dinner rush. They are the CEOs who wear a confident swagger despite feelings of inauthenticity. And they are the bouncers who must maintain a steely edge despite humming show tunes in their heart of hearts.</p><p>As we'll see in the research, surface acting can degrade our mental well-being. This deterioration can be especially true of people who must contend with negative emotions or situations inside while displaying an elated mood outside. Hochschild argues such emotional labor can lead to exhaustion and self-estrangement—that is, surface actors erect a bulwark against anger, fear, and stress, but that disconnect estranges them from the emotions that allow them to connect with others and live fulfilling lives.</p>
Don't fake it till you make it<p>Most studies on emotional labor have focused on customer service for the obvious reason that such jobs prescribe emotional states—service with a smile or, if you're in the bouncing business, a scowl. But <a href="https://eller.arizona.edu/people/allison-s-gabriel" target="_blank">Allison Gabriel</a>, associate professor of management and organizations at the University of Arizona's Eller College of Management, wanted to explore how employees used emotional labor strategies in their intra-office interactions and which strategies proved most beneficial.</p><p>"What we wanted to know is whether people choose to engage in emotion regulation when interacting with their co-workers, why they choose to regulate their emotions if there is no formal rule requiring them to do so, and what benefits, if any, they get out of this effort," Gabriel said in <a href="https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/01/200117162703.htm" target="_blank">a press release</a>.</p><p>Across three studies, she and her colleagues surveyed more than 2,500 full-time employees on their emotional regulation with coworkers. The survey asked participants to agree or disagree with statements such as "I try to experience the emotions that I show to my coworkers" or "I fake a good mood when interacting with my coworkers." Other statements gauged the outcomes of such strategies—for example, "I feel emotionally drained at work." Participants were drawn from industries as varied as education, engineering, and financial services.</p><p>The results, <a href="https://psycnet.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2Fapl0000473" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">published in the Journal of Applied Psychology</a>, revealed four different emotional strategies. "Deep actors" engaged in high levels of deep acting; "low actors" leaned more heavily on surface acting. Meanwhile, "non-actors" engaged in negligible amounts of emotional labor, while "regulators" switched between both. The survey also revealed two drivers for such strategies: prosocial and impression management motives. The former aimed to cultivate positive relationships, the latter to present a positive front.</p><p>The researchers found deep actors were driven by prosocial motives and enjoyed advantages from their strategy of choice. These actors reported lower levels of fatigue, fewer feelings of inauthenticity, improved coworker trust, and advanced progress toward career goals. </p><p>As Gabriel told <a href="https://www.psypost.org/2021/01/new-psychology-research-suggests-deep-acting-can-reduce-fatigue-and-improve-your-work-life-59081" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">PsyPost in an interview</a>: "So, it's a win-win-win in terms of feeling good, performing well, and having positive coworker interactions."</p><p>Non-actors did not report the emotional exhaustion of their low-actor peers, but they also didn't enjoy the social gains of the deep actors. Finally, the regulators showed that the flip-flopping between surface and deep acting drained emotional reserves and strained office relationships.</p><p>"I think the 'fake it until you make it' idea suggests a survival tactic at work," Gabriel noted. "Maybe plastering on a smile to simply get out of an interaction is easier in the short run, but long term, it will undermine efforts to improve your health and the relationships you have at work. </p><p>"It all boils down to, 'Let's be nice to each other.' Not only will people feel better, but people's performance and social relationships can also improve."</p>
You'll be glad ya' decided to smile<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="88a0a6a8d1c1abfcf7b1aca8e71247c6"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/QOSgpq9EGSw?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span><p>But as with any research that relies on self-reported data, there are confounders here to untangle. Even during anonymous studies, participants may select socially acceptable answers over honest ones. They may further interpret their goal progress and coworker interactions more favorably than is accurate. And certain work conditions may not produce the same effects, such as toxic work environments or those that require employees to project negative emotions.</p><p>There also remains the question of the causal mechanism. If surface acting—or switching between surface and deep acting—is more mentally taxing than genuinely feeling an emotion, then what physiological process causes this fatigue? <a href="https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnhum.2019.00151/full" target="_blank">One study published in the <em>Frontiers in Human Neuroscience</em></a><em> </em>measured hemoglobin density in participants' brains using an fNIRS while they expressed emotions facially. The researchers found no significant difference in energy consumed in the prefrontal cortex by those asked to deep act or surface act (though, this study too is limited by a lack of real-life task).<br></p><p>With that said, Gabriel's studies reinforce much of the current research on emotional labor. <a href="https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/2041386611417746" target="_blank">A 2011 meta-analysis</a> found that "discordant emotional labor states" (read: surface acting) were associated with harmful effects on well-being and performance. The analysis found no such consequences for deep acting. <a href="https://doi.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2Fa0022876" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Another meta-analysis</a> found an association between surface acting and impaired well-being, job attitudes, and performance outcomes. Conversely, deep acting was associated with improved emotional performance.</p><p>So, although there's still much to learn on the emotional labor front, it seems Van Dyke's advice to a Leigh was half correct. We should put on a happy face, but it will <a href="https://bigthink.com/design-for-good/everything-you-should-know-about-happiness-in-one-infographic" target="_self">only help if we can feel it</a>.</p>
Archaeologists discover a cave painting of a wild pig that is now the world's oldest dated work of representational art.
- Archaeologists find a cave painting of a wild pig that is at least 45,500 years old.
- The painting is the earliest known work of representational art.
- The discovery was made in a remote valley on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi.