Getting Dirty Hands in Afghanistan

Greg Miller and Joshua Partlow report in The Washington Post this week that the CIA has a “significant number” of members of Afghan President Hamid Karzai’s administration on the agency’s payroll. In return, the officials provide the CIA with information and access to an administration not entirely under President Karzai’s control. A CIA officials denies the report, but the truth is that it make senses on one level for them to have informants in the Afghan government.

The problem is that Afghan government is already rife with corruption, to the extent that its legitimacy and effectiveness are in question. Supporting officials who take bribes in exchange for favors only makes the problem worse. The CIA reportedly even pays President Karzai’s brother Ahmed Wali Karzai, who is generally believed to be heavily involved with the country’s opium trade. And just this week, Mohammed Zia Salehi, a senior adviser to President Karzai on national security issues who is also, according to The New York Times, a CIA informant, came under investigation for accepting a car as a bribe and for his role in distributing bribe money to other Karzai administration officials. The CIA did not dispute that Salehi was on its payroll, but denies any role in the activities for which he is under investigation. The investigation itself is unlikely to go anywhere, if only because Salehi knows too much about who pays whom. Salehi was released just seven hours after being arrested, after President Karzai interceded on his behalf.

While the Afghan government’s corruption is a serious problem for U.S. efforts to stabilize Afghanistan, there’s a debate within the Obama administration whether we should even try to do anything about it with troops scheduled to begin withdrawing within a year. The debate highlights the fundamental problem with becoming involved with a dysfunctional state like Afghanistan: by backing anyone in a corrupt system you may perpetuate the problems you want put an end to.

“No one is going to create Plato’s Republic over there in one year, two years, or 10. If the United States decides to deal only with the saints in Afghanistan, it’s in for both loneliness and failure,” a U.S. official told The Washington Post. Likewise a U.S. official (admittedly for all we know the same one) told The New York Times, “If you want intelligence in a war zone, you’re not going to get it from Mother Theresa or Mary Poppins.”

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  • Spinning discs are the result of two things: The force of gravity and a phenomenon in physics called the conservation of angular momentum.
  • Gravity brings matter together; the closer the matter gets, the more it accelerates – much like an ice skater who spins faster and faster the closer their arms get to their body. Then, this spinning cloud collapses due to up and down and diagonal collisions that cancel each other out until the only motion they have in common is the spin – and voila: A flat disc.

Scientists study tattooed corpses, find pigment in lymph nodes

It turns out, that tattoo ink can travel throughout your body and settle in lymph nodes.

17th August 1973: An American tattoo artist working on a client's shoulder. (Photo by F. Roy Kemp/BIPs/Getty Images)

In the slightly macabre experiment to find out where tattoo ink travels to in the body, French and German researchers recently used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence in four "inked" human cadavers — as well as one without. The results of their 2017 study? Some of the tattoo ink apparently settled in lymph nodes.

Image from the study.

As the authors explain in the study — they hail from Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, and the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment — it would have been unethical to test this on live animals since those creatures would not be able to give permission to be tattooed.

Because of the prevalence of tattoos these days, the researchers wanted to find out if the ink could be harmful in some way.

"The increasing prevalence of tattoos provoked safety concerns with respect to particle distribution and effects inside the human body," they write.

It works like this: Since lymph nodes filter lymph, which is the fluid that carries white blood cells throughout the body in an effort to fight infections that are encountered, that is where some of the ink particles collect.

Image by authors of the study.

Titanium dioxide appears to be the thing that travels. It's a white tattoo ink pigment that's mixed with other colors all the time to control shades.

The study's authors will keep working on this in the meantime.

“In future experiments we will also look into the pigment and heavy metal burden of other, more distant internal organs and tissues in order to track any possible bio-distribution of tattoo ink ingredients throughout the body. The outcome of these investigations not only will be helpful in the assessment of the health risks associated with tattooing but also in the judgment of other exposures such as, e.g., the entrance of TiO2 nanoparticles present in cosmetics at the site of damaged skin."

Photo by Alina Grubnyak on Unsplash
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