Big Think's Top 25 +1 Videos


Mama, Don't Let Your Babies Grow Up To Deny Evolution

If adults want to deny evolution, sure. That’s fine. Whatever. But those adults better not make their kids follow in step because we as society need them to be better. Bill Nye, everyone's favorite Science Guy, explains the importance of promoting evolution education for America's future voters and lawmakers.

My Man, Sir Isaac Newton

Are you at least 26 years-old? If so, you are older than Isaac Newton was when he invented calculus... on a dare! (If you're younger than 26, better hurry up.) Big Think expert and overall cool guy Neil deGrasse Tyson explains why Newton is the greatest physicist who ever and likely will ever live.

Will Mankind Destroy Itself?

Theoretical physicist Michio Kaku sees two major trends today. One eventually leads to a multicultural, scientific, tolerant society that will expand beyond Earth in the name of human progress. The other trend leads to fundamentalism, monoculturalism, and -- eventually -- civilizational ruin. Whichever of these two trends wins out will determine the fate of mankind. No pressure, everyone.

Ricky Gervais on the Principles of Comedy

Comedy isn't just about making people laugh, says actor Ricky Gervais. It's about making people think. And while different forms of comedy require different approaches, the crux of any good performance will always be rhythm.

Reading the Bible (Or the Koran, Or the Torah) Will Make You an Atheist

Author and magician Penn Jillette was asked to leave his Christian youth group by a pastor who told his parents: "He's no longer learning about the Bible from me. He is now converting everyone in the class to atheism." The reason? Jillette did his homework and was turned off by the hostilities of the text. It can be intimidating to come out as an atheist, especially in a religious community. Jillette found that having "out" atheist role models helped him feel unalone.

Henry Rollins: The One Decision that Changed My Life Forever

Punk legend Henry Rollins describes the biggest turning point in his life: the moment he decided to leave his job as manager of a Häagen-Dazs store and eventually become the lead singer of Black Flag. It was the courage to take a risk, plus a whole lot of luck, that got Rollins to where he is today.

5 Programming Languages Everyone Should Know

Java is "heavyweight, verbose, and everyone loves to hate it," but programmer Larry Wall still thinks you should know it. In this video, he offers suggestions for people interested in learning languages, as well as suggestions for those significantly less invested in computer programming.

The Importance of Unbelief

If you assume there’s no afterlife, Stephen Fry says, you’ll likely have a fuller, more interesting "now" life. The actor and comedian details the positive influence philosophers have had on his life, as well as his journey of understanding both what he believes and why he believes it.

Why be happy when you could be interesting?

We don't really want what we think we desire, says philosopher Slavoj Žižek.

James Gleick on the Common Character Traits of Geniuses

This video is part of a series on female genius, in proud collaboration with 92Y's 7 Days of Genius Festival.


The personalities of Isaac Newton and Richard Feynman were, on one level, extremely different. Biographer and former New York Times reporter James Gleick says Newton was argumentative, had few friends, and likely died a virgin. Feynman, on the other hand, loved dancing and going to parties, and had many friends in the scientific community. But in regards to their working habits, both men were solitary and had the ability to concentrate with a sort of intensity that is hard for mortals to grasp. At bottom, Gleick says geniuses tend to have a yearning for solitude which, though fruitful for their professional work, made the task of daily living more burdensome.

The Importance of Doing Useless Things

From poetry and ballet to mathematics and being clever, life is laden with frivolous pursuits that hold no bearing on our ability to survive. Yet, insists Richard Dawkins, if it weren’t for the development of these impractical activities, we wouldn’t be here.

Why monogamy is ridiculous

Dan Savage: the idea that one instance of infidelity should ruin a relationship is a new—and misguided—notion.

Dan Harris: Hack Your Brain's Default Mode With Meditation

Dan Harris explains the neuroscience behind meditation, but reminds us that the ancient practice isn't magic and likely won't send one floating into the cosmic ooze. He predicts that the exercise will soon become regularly scheduled maintenance, as commonplace as brushing your teeth or eating your veggies. Harris, an ABC News correspondent, was turned on to mediation after a live, on-air panic attack. His latest book is 10% Happier: How I Tamed the Voice in My Head, Reduced Stress Without Losing My Edge, and Found Self-Help That Actually Works--A True Story.

How Intellectuals Betrayed the Poor

For 40 years academics were duped into idolizing the idea of unfettered markets, says Cornel West, and now our society is paying a terrible price.

Why Some Races Outperform Others

A psychologist explains the latest research into education disparity.

Why It's So Hard for Scientists to Believe in God

Some scientists see religion as a threat to the scientific method that should be resisted. But faith "is really asking a different set of questions," says Collins.

Why Facebook Isn't Free

Internet pioneer Jaron Lanier argues that free technologies like Facebook come with a hidden and heavy cost – the livelihoods of their consumers.

How to Tell if You’re a Writer

For John Irving, the need for a daily ration of solitude was his strongest "pre-writing" moment as a child.

Your Behavior Creates Your Gender

Nobody is born one gender or the other, says the philosopher. "We act and walk and speak and talk in ways that consolidate an impression of being a man or being a woman."

Are You a Liberal Snob? Take The Quiz

Charles Mrray designed this quiz to have a salutary effect on bringing to people’s attention the degree to which they live in a bubble that seals them off from an awful lot of their fellow American citizens.

Why You Should Watch Filth

John Waters defends the creation and consumption of obscene films, and recommends some of his personal favorites.

What Are You Worth? Getting Past Status Anxiety.

Writer Alain De Botton says that status anxiety is more pernicious and destructive than most of us can imagine, and recommends getting out of the game altogether.

Sheila Heen on the Psychology of Happiness and Feedback

Sheila Heen, a Partner at Triad Consulting Group and a lecturer on Law at Harvard Law School, explains the psychology behind feedback and criticism. Heen is co-author of "Thanks for the Feedback: The Science and Art of Receiving Feedback Well."

Are You a Psychopath? Take the Test.

Psychologist Kevin Dutton presents the classic psychological test known as "the trolley problem" with a variation. Take the test and measure you response on the psychopathic spectrum.

Here's How to Catch a Liar, If You Really Want To

It’s very complex as to whether or not we really want to catch a liar. We think we do. What if we find out that both of our presidential candidates are lying? Then what do we do? I’m not saying they are; I never comment on anyone in office or running for office. Only after they’re out that they’re fair game. . . . Clinton said, "I didn’t have sex with that woman" and then gave her name. "That woman" is putting her at a distance from himself.

Why I Came Out at Age 81

As a teenager in the '40s, James Randi "would have gotten stoned" for being gay. But when he outed himself to the world in 2010, the reaction was "wonderful."

More playlists
  • Changing the narrative around people's experience with pain or illness, combined with a bit of adrenaline and showmanship, can change their condition, says psychological illusionist Derren Brown.
  • Brown has a show on Netflix, called Miracle, that comes at faith healing from a scientific perspective, demonstrating the psychological tricks that can seem so god-like.
  • When we start to identify with a particular ailment and sink into that habit, it creates our psychological experience of pain. The so-called "healing" process of faith healers is really about tapping into the psychological component of suffering.


  • Methods used in foreign intervention often resurface domestically, whether that's in the form of skills or technology.
  • University of Tampa professor Abigail Blanco calls this the boomerang effect. It's a consequence not often thought about when we discuss foreign intervention.
  • The three channels to consider when examining the boomerang effect include human capital in the form of skills, administrative dynamics, and physical capital in the form of tools and technology.
  • Scientists printed a 3D replica of the vocal tract of Nesyamun, an Egyptian priest whose mummified corpse has been on display in the UK for two centuries.
  • With the help of an electronic device, the reproduced voice is able to "speak" a vowel noise.
  • The team behind the "Voices of the Past" project suggest reproducing ancient voices could make museum experiences more dynamic.


Scientists have reproduced the voice of an ancient Egyptian priest by creating a 3D-printed replica of his mummified vocal tract.

An international and interdisciplinary team, led by David Howard, a professor of electronic engineering at Royal Holloway, used computed tomography (CT) scanning technology to measure the dimensions of the vocal tract of Nesyamun, a mummy that's spent about two centuries on display at Leeds City Museum in the United Kingdom.

The team then used those measurements to 3D-print an artificial vocal tract, through which they produced sounds using a peculiar electronic device called the Vocal Tract Organ. (You can check it out here.)

"The Vocal Tract Organ, a first in its own right, provided the inspiration for doing this," Howard told CNET.

Nesyamun, whose priestly duties included chanting and singing the daily liturgy, can once again "speak" — at least, in the form of a vowel noise that sounds something like a cross between the English pronunciation of the vowels in "bed" and "bad."

Of course, the new "voice" of Nesyamun is an approximation, and given the lack of actual recordings of his voice, and the degeneration of his body over millennia, it's impossible to know just how accurate it is. But the researchers suggested that their "Voice from the Past" project offers a chance for people to "engage with the past in completely new and innovative ways."

Howard et al.

"While this approach has wide implications for heritage management/museum display, its relevance conforms exactly to the ancient Egyptians' fundamental belief that 'to speak the name of the dead is to make them live again'," they wrote in a paper published in Nature Scientific Reports. "Given Nesyamun's stated desire to have his voice heard in the afterlife in order to live forever, the fulfilment of his beliefs through the synthesis of his vocal function allows us to make direct contact with ancient Egypt by listening to a sound from a vocal tract that has not been heard for over 3000 years, preserved through mummification and now restored through this new technique."

Connecting modern people with history

It's not the first time scientists have "recreated" an ancient human's voice. In 2016, for example, Italian researchers used software to reconstruct the voice of Ötzi, an iceman who was discovered in 1991 and is thought to have died more than 5,000 years ago. But the "Voices of the Past" project is different, the researchers note, because Nesyamun's mummified corpse is especially well preserved.

"It was particularly suited, given its age and preservation [of its soft tissues], which is unusual," Howard told Live Science.

As to whether Nesyamun's reconstructed voice will ever be able to speak complete sentences, Howard told The Associated Press, that it's "something that is being worked on, so it will be possible one day."

John Schofield, an archaeologist at the University of York, said that reproducing voices from history can make museum experiences "more multidimensional."

"There is nothing more personal than someone's voice," he told The Associated Press. "So we think that hearing a voice from so long ago will be an unforgettable experience, making heritage places like Karnak, Nesyamun's temple, come alive."

  • Living off Australia and New Guinea are at least nine species of walking sharks.
  • Using fins as legs, they prowl coral reefs at low tide.
  • The sharks are small, don't be frightened.

Natural selection takes time. According to the fossil record, sharks, for example, have been essentially the same for hundreds of millions of years. But something's up lately, and by "lately" we mean the last nine million years. Sharks off of Australia have learned to walk. Not Great Whites, fortunately. Small sharks that feed on coral reefs. Cute sharks, actually.

Scientists have known for some time that five such shark species exist, but new research nearly doubles that number to nine. The new information comes from a 12-year study from an an international team of scientists from University of Queensland (UQ), Conservation International, CSIRO, the Florida Museum of Natural History, and the Indonesian Institute of Sciences and Indonesian Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries published in Marine and Freshwater Research.

Don't mess with success

upload.wikimedia.org

Over the last 400 million years, only about 1,200 shark species have emerged. "We see animals from 180 million years ago with exactly the same teeth," Gavin Naylor of the Florida Program for Shark Research at the University of Florida tells National Geographic. While it's true they're not the most prolific reproducers, and have a long life span, that's still plenty of time for useful mutations to arise. On the other hand, if it ain't broke, don't fix it — Earth and the oceans may change, but as predators, sharks do just fine as they are. Even if, as Naylor says of sixgill sharks, they "seem stuck back in time."

Walking to dinner

The walking sharks, or "epaulette sharks," live in coastal waters off northern Australia and the island of New Guinea. They prowl coral reefs when the tide goes out, walking through shallow water on their pectoral fins in the front and pelvic fins in the back, on the hunt for crabs, shrimp, small fish. They're adept at wriggling their way into tight nooks to find food, too. "At less than a meter long on average," says Christine Dudgeon of UQ, "walking sharks present no threat to people, but their ability to withstand low oxygen environments and walk on their fins gives them a remarkable edge over their prey of small crustaceans and mollusks." Says Dudgeon, "During low tides, they became the top predator on the reef."

The abilities of the small sharks — they're less than three feet in length — definitely put them in a class of their own, says Dudgeon: "These unique features are not shared with their closest relatives the bamboo sharks or more distant relatives in the carpet shark order including wobbegongs and whale sharks."

Though the five epaulette species don't look much alike, varying in markings and color, their DNA identified them as family. Says Dudgeon, "We estimated the connection between the species based on comparisons between their mitochondrial DNA which is passed down through the maternal lineage. This DNA codes for the mitochondria which are the parts of cells that transform oxygen and nutrients from food into energy for cells."

What's the hurry?

The researchers theorize that a few factors may have accelerated the epaulets' evolution. First off, they keep to themselves in their own separate region, with extensive inbreeding perhaps speeding up the rate of mutation. "Data suggests the new species evolved after the sharks moved away from their original population, became genetically isolated in new areas and developed into new species," explains Dudgeon. "They may have moved by swimming or walking on their fins, but it's also possible they 'hitched' a ride on reefs moving westward across the top of New Guinea, about two million years ago."

Another possible factor are the ever-changing reefs themselves. They're continually in flux as oceans change and as corals live and die, with rising and falling sea levels, as well as changing currents and temperatures. The epaulettes' success depends on adapting quickly to a very dynamic environment, about which Naylor says, "It's the shark equivalent of the Galápagos, where you can see shark evolution in action."

Beachgoers needn't fear for their tootsies just yet, but just wait another few million years, and who knows?

  • The way we dance to music is so signature to an individual that a computer can now identify us by our unique dancing "fingerprint" with over 90 percent accuracy.
  • The AI had a harder time identifying dancers who were trying to dance to metal and jazz music.
  • Researchers say they are interested in what the results of this study reveal about human response to music, rather than potential surveillance uses.


When music comes on, some people are toe-tappers or head-bobbers, others sway their hips, and then there are those that let the rhythm move them to a full-body boogie. But, whatever it is, the way we groove to a beat it is so signature to an individual that a computer can now identify us by our unique dancing "fingerprint."

A recent study has discovered that the way that we move to music, regardless of genre, is nearly always the same. So much so, an AI can identify who the dancer is with over 90 percent accuracy.

An accidental discovery

Giphy

Researchers at the Centre for Interdisciplinary Music Research at Finland's University of Jyväskylä have been using motion capture technology to study what a person's dance moves say about his or her mood, personality, and ability to empathize. They recently stumbled upon a serendipitous discovery while trying to see if an ML machine, a form of artificial intelligence, would be able to identify which genre of music was playing based on how the participants of the study were dancing. In their study, published in the Journal of New Music Research, the researchers motion captured 73 participants with the AI technology while they danced to eight different music genres: electronica, jazz, metal, pop, rap, reggae, country, and blues. The only instruction the dancers were given was to move in a way that felt natural. The original objective was a flop. The ML's algorithm was wrong in distinguishing genres over 70 percent of the time.

But what it could do was more shocking. The computer was able to correctly identify which one of the participants was dancing 94 percent of the time, regardless of what kind of music was playing, based on the pattern of a person's dance style. It was the movement of participants' heads, shoulders and knees that were important markers in distinguishing between individuals. If the computer were to have guessed randomly who was dancing with no other information to go off, the expected accuracy of its guesses would have been less than 2 percent.

"It seems as though a person's dance movements are a kind of fingerprint. Each person has a unique movement signature that stays the same no matter what kind of music is playing," said Pasi Saari, a co-author of the study, in a release.

Genre matters a little

The researchers noticed that some genres might have more influence on the way an individual dances than others. For instance, the AI had a harder time identifying dancers who were trying to dance to Metal and Jazz music. They aren't exactly an intuitive genre to groove to, so we all tend to go about it using the same types of movements.

"There is a strong cultural association between Metal and certain types of movement, like headbanging," Emily Carlson, the first author of the study, explained. "It's probable that Metal caused more dancers to move in similar ways, making it harder to tell them apart.

Will dance-recognition software become a thing?

It's possible that dance-recognition software could become something similar to face-recognition software, but it doesn't seem as practical. For now, researchers say that they are not as interested in possible surveillance uses of this technology, but rather what the results of this study say about how humans respond to music.

"We have a lot of new questions to ask, like whether our movement signatures stay the same across our lifespan, whether we can detect differences between cultures based on these movement signatures, and how well humans are able to recognize individuals from their dance movements compared to computers," concluded Carlson.

So don't worry about being identified at nightclub by an AI via your signature dance moves... yet.