Women are more likely to survive a crisis than men
Girl babies may have one distinct advantage over boy babies. But what is it?
We know that women live longer than men on average, no matter what culture or region of the world we focus on. In many places, they live a full decade longer. And this isn’t a newly discovered phenomenon. Historical records state this was so throughout history. Several studies have looked into it. But scientists are still wondering, is there a biological reason? Or does it have to do with how women are socialized?
Some studies have focused on women being more connected to others. Since it’s more socially acceptable in many cultures for women to divulge their problems to each other and gain emotional support, this has been shown to reduce stress, which could lead to or contribute to longevity. But that’s not the whole story.
A dual Danish-American study recently took a different approach to try and answer these questions. They looked at populations which had suffered a terrible crisis, such as a severe famine, epidemic, or who had been subject to slavery. In these settings, as one might expect, the mortality rate is extremely high. Even then, women tended to live longer than men. Researchers said that rather than focusing on fully-grown adults, they found that the greatest advantage was due to female babies surviving harsher conditions better than males.
The difference may have to do with a discrepancy in infant mortality rates between the sexes. Credit: Getty Images.
Previous research looked at Mormons, cloistered monks and nuns, and other populations where males are generally protected from risk factors that would otherwise threaten their longevity, such as smoking, drinking, or reckless behavior. Still, even in these settings, women live longer than men.
“Excess male mortality is also found among newborns and infants,” researchers write, “when behavioral differences are unlikely to play a crucial role and social factors may be neutral or favor male survival.” The reason they looked at such extreme settings was, “A finding that men and women have similar life expectancies under these conditions would challenge the notion that the survival advantage of women is fundamentally biologically determined in all environments.”
Although there are anecdotal incidents of crises where women were more likely to survive than men, no empirical data had been sifted through on the subject, until now. Researchers analyzed the mortality data to see what they could glean about the differences in the sexes and how they endure such crises. Using historical data can sometimes be problematic. But here, researchers say the information used had been published before in peer reviewed journals. They looked at data going back 250 years and surrounding some of the worst disasters in history.
These included: the transport of former slaves to Liberia (1820-1843), plantations slaves in Trinidad in the 19th century, the Ukrainian famine of 1933, the Swedish famine (1772-1773), the Icelandic measles epidemics of 1847 and 1882, and the Irish famine (1845-1849).
Former slaves brought to West Africa in the 1800s had some of the highest mortality rates in history, mostly due to having little resistance to the tropical diseases found there. 40% died within the first year. While infants born during this time rarely reached age two.
Credit: the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).
During the Irish famine, life expectancy went from 38 years-old for both sexes, to almost 19 for men and 22 for women. Girls born during the Ukrainian famine of 1933 lived on average around 10 years and boys, seven. Research Professor James Vaupel at Duke University led the American team, while Assistant Professor Virginia Zarulli at the University of Southern Denmark, led the Danish one. Together, they found that even in environments where mortality is severe, women still outlive men by an average of six months to four years.
Once mortality was broken down by age group, the researchers found that most of the difference came down to female babies being more likely to survive infancy than males. Rather than social reasons, researchers say the root of the discrepancy must be biological. Now whether its genetics, hormones such as estrogen, or differences in how male and female immune systems work, will have to be sorted out in future studies.
To learn more about why women live longer than men, click here:
What can 3D printing do for medicine? The "sky is the limit," says Northwell Health researcher Dr. Todd Goldstein.
- Medical professionals are currently using 3D printers to create prosthetics and patient-specific organ models that doctors can use to prepare for surgery.
- Eventually, scientists hope to print patient-specific organs that can be transplanted safely into the human body.
- Northwell Health, New York State's largest health care provider, is pioneering 3D printing in medicine in three key ways.
Can dirt help us fight off stress? Groundbreaking new research shows how.
- New research identifies a bacterium that helps block anxiety.
- Scientists say this can lead to drugs for first responders and soldiers, preventing PTSD and other mental issues.
- The finding builds on the hygiene hypothesis, first proposed in 1989.
Are modern societies trying too hard to be clean, at the detriment to public health? Scientists discovered that a microorganism living in dirt can actually be good for us, potentially helping the body to fight off stress. Harnessing its powers can lead to a "stress vaccine".
Researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder found that the fatty 10(Z)-hexadecenoic acid from the soil-residing bacterium Mycobacterium vaccae aids immune cells in blocking pathways that increase inflammation and the ability to combat stress.
The study's senior author and Integrative Physiology Professor Christopher Lowry described this fat as "one of the main ingredients" in the "special sauce" that causes the beneficial effects of the bacterium.
The finding goes hand in hand with the "hygiene hypothesis," initially proposed in 1989 by the British scientist David Strachan. He maintained that our generally sterile modern world prevents children from being exposed to certain microorganisms, resulting in compromised immune systems and greater incidences of asthma and allergies.
Contemporary research fine-tuned the hypothesis, finding that not interacting with so-called "old friends" or helpful microbes in the soil and the environment, rather than the ones that cause illnesses, is what's detrimental. In particular, our mental health could be at stake.
"The idea is that as humans have moved away from farms and an agricultural or hunter-gatherer existence into cities, we have lost contact with organisms that served to regulate our immune system and suppress inappropriate inflammation," explained Lowry. "That has put us at higher risk for inflammatory disease and stress-related psychiatric disorders."
University of Colorado Boulder
This is not the first study on the subject from Lowry, who published previous work showing the connection between being exposed to healthy bacteria and mental health. He found that being raised with animals and dust in a rural environment helps children develop more stress-proof immune systems. Such kids were also likely to be less at risk for mental illnesses than people living in the city without pets.
Lowry's other work also pointed out that the soil-based bacterium Mycobacterium vaccae acts like an antidepressant when injected into rodents. It alters their behavior and has lasting anti-inflammatory effects on the brain, according to the press release from the University of Colorado Boulder. Prolonged inflammation can lead to such stress-related disorders as PTSD.
The new study from Lowry and his team identified why that worked by pinpointing the specific fatty acid responsible. They showed that when the 10(Z)-hexadecenoic acid gets into cells, it works like a lock, attaching itself to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR). This allows it to block a number of key pathways responsible for inflammation. Pre-treating the cells with the acid (or lipid) made them withstand inflammation better.
Lowry thinks this understanding can lead to creating a "stress vaccine" that can be given to people in high-stress jobs, like first responders or soldiers. The vaccine can prevent the psychological effects of stress.
What's more, this friendly bacterium is not the only potentially helpful organism we can find in soil.
"This is just one strain of one species of one type of bacterium that is found in the soil but there are millions of other strains in soils," said Lowry. "We are just beginning to see the tip of the iceberg in terms of identifying the mechanisms through which they have evolved to keep us healthy. It should inspire awe in all of us."
Check out the study published in the journal Psychopharmacology.
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An ordained Lama in a Tibetan Buddhist lineage, Lama Rod grew up a queer, black male within the black Christian church in the American south. Navigating all of these intersecting, evolving identities has led him to a life's work based on compassion for self and others.
- "What I'm interested in is deep, systematic change. What I understand now is that real change doesn't happen until change on the inside begins to happen."
- "Masculinity is not inherently toxic. Patriarchy is toxic. We have to let that energy go so we can stop forcing other people to do emotional labor for us."
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