We finally know what causes childhood leukemia — and how to prevent it
A number of different things have to happen for a child to develop leukemia.
The cause of the most common type of childhood cancer has been a century-long debate among those in the medical community. Now, thanks to the work of Prof. Mel Greaves, of the Institute of Cancer Research in London, the mystery is at its end. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) affects 1 in 2,000 children. Ironically, it's our modern germ-free lifestyle, particularly our high level of cleanliness, that contributes to the disease's formation. What's really exciting is that we may even have the knowledge we need to make ALL a thing of the past.
To make this breakthrough, Prof. Greaves conducted a meta-analysis, combing through 30 years of medical literature and gathering data from colleagues all across the globe. His search included research on genetics, epidemiology, immunology, cellular biology, and much more. Along this journey, Prof. Greaves ruled out chemicals in the environment, ionizing radiation, electromagnetic waves, and the influence of high tension wires (electrical cables) as possible causes.
Putting together so many disparate puzzle pieces and eliminating false causes allowed him to formulate a “unified theory of leukemia." Although a horrifying condition for a child and parents to endure, Prof. Greaves' analysis, published in the journal Nature Reviews Cancer, has a bright spot. This type of leukemia may be wholly preventable.
A lack of exposure to microbes in the environment contributes to ALL. Image credit: Donnie Ray Jones, Flickr.
This exhaustive work supports the “delayed infection theory." According to Prof. Greaves, “The research study strongly suggests that acute lymphoblastic leukemia has a clear biological cause and is activated by a variety of infections in predisposed kids whose immune systems have not been properly primed."
Children born with a certain genetic mutation have merely the potential for developing ALL. This mutation takes place by accident within the womb. It will remain latent until the second “hit" comes, when the immune system fails to encounter enough microbes during the first year of life to prime it, or in other words train it.
A healthy amount of germ exposure allows the immune system to learn how to deal with pathogens correctly. If the infant grows into childhood without exposure to microbes from the environment or other children, they may develop ALL. But it takes a run-of-the-mill infection later on to ultimately trigger this form of leukemia. All told, full-blown ALL only occurs in 1% of cases where the mutation is present. The absence of pathogens as a factor explains why this form of childhood leukemia is common in wealthy, developed countries, but nearly absent in developing ones.
Allowing young children to play with older ones and be exposed to microbes in the environment could prevent ALL. Image credit: Pixababy.
What's fascinating is some of the disparate pieces of the puzzle Prof. Greaves put together to formulate this discovery. For instance, one clue was an outbreak of swine flu in Milan, which resulted in seven children developing ALL. Another clue was that infants born vaginally over cesarean section have a lower risk of developing this form of cancer.
That's because infants passing through the vaginal canal are exposed to more microbes than those born through c-section. Also, infants who are breastfed have less of a risk, as they often pickup healthy bacteria this way. On another front, animals, particularly mice, when living in an environment devoid of pathogens, often develop leukemia.
Prof. Greaves urges parents not to worry too much about keeping a clean house, and he offer some tips for preventing the disease, which include being less worried about normal, run-of-the-mill infections, and allowing young children to play with other kids, especially older children.
This research may even someday help us prevent the onset of other autoimmune disorders, including type 1 diabetes and allergies. In the future, giving young children a special yogurt drink or somehow purposefully exposing them to healthy microbes could help prevent ALL and perhaps other autoimmune conditions as well.
To hear Prof. Greaves explain his breakthrough himself, click here:
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Is this proof of a dramatic shift?
- Map details dramatic shift from CNN to Fox News over 10-year period
- Does it show the triumph of "fake news" — or, rather, its defeat?
- A closer look at the map's legend allows for more complex analyses
Dramatic and misleading
Image: Reddit / SICResearch
The situation today: CNN pushed back to the edges of the country.
Over the course of no more than a decade, America has radically switched favorites when it comes to cable news networks. As this sequence of maps showing TMAs (Television Market Areas) suggests, CNN is out, Fox News is in.
The maps are certainly dramatic, but also a bit misleading. They nevertheless provide some insight into the state of journalism and the public's attitudes toward the press in the US.
Let's zoom in:
- It's 2008, on the eve of the Obama Era. CNN (blue) dominates the cable news landscape across America. Fox News (red) is an upstart (°1996) with a few regional bastions in the South.
- By 2010, Fox News has broken out of its southern heartland, colonizing markets in the Midwest and the Northwest — and even northern Maine and southern Alaska.
- Two years later, Fox News has lost those two outliers, but has filled up in the middle: it now boasts two large, contiguous blocks in the southeast and northwest, almost touching.
- In 2014, Fox News seems past its prime. The northwestern block has shrunk, the southeastern one has fragmented.
- Energised by Trump's 2016 presidential campaign, Fox News is back with a vengeance. Not only have Maine and Alaska gone from entirely blue to entirely red, so has most of the rest of the U.S. Fox News has plugged the Nebraska Gap: it's no longer possible to walk from coast to coast across CNN territory.
- By 2018, the fortunes from a decade earlier have almost reversed. Fox News rules the roost. CNN clings on to the Pacific Coast, New Mexico, Minnesota and parts of the Northeast — plus a smattering of metropolitan areas in the South and Midwest.
Image source: Reddit / SICResearch
This sequence of maps, showing America turning from blue to red, elicited strong reactions on the Reddit forum where it was published last week. For some, the takeover by Fox News illustrates the demise of all that's good and fair about news journalism. Among the comments?
- "The end is near."
- "The idiocracy grows."
- "(It's) like a spreading disease."
- "One of the more frightening maps I've seen."
- "LOL that's what happens when you're fake news!"
- "CNN went down the toilet on quality."
- "A Minecraft YouTuber could beat CNN's numbers."
- "CNN has become more like a high-school production of a news show."
Not a few find fault with both channels, even if not always to the same degree:
- "That anybody considers either of those networks good news sources is troubling."
- "Both leave you understanding less rather than more."
- "This is what happens when you spout bullsh-- for two years straight. People find an alternative — even if it's just different bullsh--."
- "CNN is sh-- but it's nowhere close to the outright bullsh-- and baseless propaganda Fox News spews."
"Old people learning to Google"
Image: Google Trends
CNN vs. Fox News search terms (200!-2018)
But what do the maps actually show? Created by SICResearch, they do show a huge evolution, but not of both cable news networks' audience size (i.e. Nielsen ratings). The dramatic shift is one in Google search trends. In other words, it shows how often people type in "CNN" or "Fox News" when surfing the web. And that does not necessarily reflect the relative popularity of both networks. As some commenters suggest:
- "I can't remember the last time that I've searched for a news channel on Google. Is it really that difficult for people to type 'cnn.com'?"
- "More than anything else, these maps show smart phone proliferation (among older people) more than anything else."
- "This is a map of how old people and rural areas have learned to use Google in the last decade."
- "This is basically a map of people who don't understand how the internet works, and it's no surprise that it leans conservative."
A visual image as strong as this map sequence looks designed to elicit a vehement response — and its lack of context offers viewers little new information to challenge their preconceptions. Like the news itself, cartography pretends to be objective, but always has an agenda of its own, even if just by the selection of its topics.
The trick is not to despair of maps (or news) but to get a good sense of the parameters that are in play. And, as is often the case (with both maps and news), what's left out is at least as significant as what's actually shown.
One important point: while Fox News is the sole major purveyor of news and opinion with a conservative/right-wing slant, CNN has more competition in the center/left part of the spectrum, notably from MSNBC.
Another: the average age of cable news viewers — whether they watch CNN or Fox News — is in the mid-60s. As a result of a shift in generational habits, TV viewing is down across the board. Younger people are more comfortable with a "cafeteria" approach to their news menu, selecting alternative and online sources for their information.
It should also be noted, however, that Fox News, according to Harvard's Nieman Lab, dominates Facebook when it comes to engagement among news outlets.
CNN, Fox and MSNBC
Image: Google Trends
CNN vs. Fox (without the 'News'; may include searches for actual foxes). See MSNBC (in yellow) for comparison
For the record, here are the Nielsen ratings for average daily viewer total for the three main cable news networks, for 2018 (compared to 2017):
- Fox News: 1,425,000 (-5%)
- MSNBC: 994,000 (+12%)
- CNN: 706,000 (-9%)
And according to this recent overview, the top 50 of the most popular websites in the U.S. includes cnn.com in 28th place, and foxnews.com in... 27th place.The top 5, in descending order, consists of google.com, youtube.com, facebook.com, amazon.com and yahoo.com — the latter being the highest-placed website in the News and Media category.
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