from the world's big
The last frontier on planet Earth will be mapped by 2030
Only 5-15% of the World Ocean’s floor has been mapped. This herculean effort is set to tackle our planet’s last frontier.
Outer space isn’t the last great frontier. There’s a place virtually unknown to modern science right here on Earth, lurking below its murky depths. As it stands, only a minuscule space—around 5-15% of the World Ocean’s floor, has been mapped, mainly from disparate sources. That’s quite a lot of unexplored real estate. Consider that the World Ocean covers 71% of the planet’s surface. This glaring knowledge gap won’t last long.
The Seabed 2030 project plans to step in and map the entire world’s ocean floor by 2030. This is an international collaboration, sponsored by Japan’s Nippon Foundation and the nonprofit GEBCO. GEBCO stands for: General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans. The nonprofit is a part of both the International Hydrographic Organization and UNESCO.
Project officials plan to map some 140 million sq. miles (approx. 362,598,335 sq. km) total. Not only wide, the World Ocean is deep in most places. 93% of it is 650 ft. (200 m) down or deeper. A global bathymetric map would be quite a feat. But it’s possible with current technology. All told, the project is expected to cost $3 billion. Fortunately, the whole thing doesn’t have to be completed from scratch.
To map the ocean’s floor, ships will use a special kind of sonar called multibeam bathymetry. Image credit: The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
Fishing boats, pleasure craft, and commercial companies are encouraged to contribute to the cause. These include companies like Ocean Infinity, which is currently searching for Malaysia Airlines flight MH370. Another is Dutch undersea energy exploration company Furgo, which previously searched for the famous missing flight. Furgo alone has surveyed approx. 25,100 sq. miles (65,000 sq. km) of the ocean floor. All interested parties can send their data to the International Hydrographic Organisation in Monaco, which hosts GEBCO. The data will eventually be available to the public through an iOS app.
Bathymetry is the study of the beds or floors of bodies of water. Today, it’s synonymous with the term “submarine topography.” The ships used to fill in the gaps for this project will utilize a sonar system called multibeam bathymetry. This shoots out sound waves in all directions underneath the hull and picks up topographic formations when they bounce back.
Being able to ensonify the entire seafloor allows the ship’s computer to create high resolution, 3D maps. Data collection will be made through underwater autonomous vehicles (UAVs) or drones. These are cost-effective and can dive to parts of the ocean dangerous to humans and where sensing technology has a hard time reaching.
The project was officially launched at the United Nations Ocean Conference in New York City, on June 6, 2017. The majority of the work however, is expected to take place in the 2021-2030 period. Once all of the data is collected, academic research centers in the US, Germany, Sweden, and New Zealand will begin to go through it, each focusing on a specific ocean basin. The Global Center of the project, responsible for centralization and management, is the National Oceanography Center, in Southampton, the UK. Here, researchers will sew all the pieces together.
3D model of seafloor topography. Image credit: Australian Government, Australian Transport Safety Bureau, Geoscience Australia, Wikipedia Commons.
The undersea landscape is astounding. There are trenches so deep, they make the Grand Canyon look like a dimple. There are vast, towering mountain ranges, incredible rock formations, valleys, volcanoes, channels, and plains. Gaining greater knowledge of seafloor topography might help us better understand weather patterns, manage conservation efforts, and maintain the world’s fisheries, which today feed millions. We may even gain knowledge of how to better protect coastal communities from dangerous storms like Tsunami’s. On another front, we could make headway in plate tectonics—specifically into the movements of the southern continents in prehistoric times.
“We know more about the surface of the Moon and Mars than our own backyard,” Seabed 2030 director Satinder Bindra told Reuters. “For too long now we have treated our own oceans as a forgotten frontier.” Bindra calls the project “essential.” At a meeting February in Tokyo, he said that since its launch, “the project has made rapid progress, drawing on the experience of some 28 international organizations and networks spread across more than 50 countries.”
The main focus isn’t commercial but scientific. That said, it’s thought that the project will uncover vast amounts of mineral wealth and untapped resources. Oil, diamonds, precious metals, rare minerals, and yes, even sunken treasure might be discovered. Of course, there’s a fear that resource exploitation could lead to further environmental degradation. Besides this, the project could get hung-up in geopolitical hotspots. Certainly, areas of the South China Sea, the Red Sea, and the Gulf of Aden will be difficult to gain access too. Still, project officials believe they’ll have the map in its entirety by the deadline they’ve imposed.
To learn more about this project, click here:
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Can an orgasm a day really keep the doctor away?
- Achieving orgasm through masturbation provides a rush of feel-good hormones (such as dopamine, serotonin and oxytocin) and can re-balance our levels of cortisol (a stress-inducing hormone). This helps our immune system function at a higher level.
- The surge in "feel-good" hormones also promotes a more relaxed and calm state of being, making it easier to achieve restful sleep, which is a critical part in maintaining a high-functioning immune system.
- Just as bad habits can slow your immune system, positive habits (such as a healthy sleep schedule and active sex life) can help boost your immune system which can prevent you from becoming sick.
How masturbation affects your brain...<p>Orgasms are a very common human phenomenon. The physical and mental health benefits have been researched frequently as a result, and yet, there is still so much to be learned about how our bodies and brains react to the chemicals and hormones released during and after experiencing this type of sexual release.</p><p>"The amount of speculation versus actual data on both the function and value of orgasm is remarkable" explains Julia Heiman, director of the <a href="https://kinseyinstitute.org/" target="_blank">Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction</a>.</p><p>Masturbation causes a rush of <a href="https://www.webmd.com/mental-health/what-is-dopamine" target="_blank">dopamine</a>, which is a chemical that is associated with our ability to feel pleasure. Along with the rush of dopamine that is released during an orgasm, there is also a release of a hormone called <a href="https://www.livescience.com/42198-what-is-oxytocin.html" target="_blank">oxytocin</a>, which is commonly referred to as the "love hormone."<br></p><p>This concoction of chemicals does more than just boost our mood, it also can play a key role in decreasing stress and promoting relaxation. Oxytocin decreases <a href="https://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/what-is-cortisol" target="_blank">cortisol</a>, which is a stress hormone that is usually present (in high volumes) during times of anxiety, fear, panic, or distress. </p><p>According to BDSM and fetish researcher <a href="https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/therapists/dr-gloria-brame-colbert-ga/278388" target="_blank">Dr. Gloria Brame</a>, an orgasm is the biggest non-drug induced blast of dopamine that we can experience. </p><p>By boosting the oxytocin and dopamine levels and subsequently decreasing our cortisol levels, the brain is placed in a more relaxed, euphoric, and calm state. </p>
Masturbation boosts your immune system and raises your white blood cell count.<p>How do those effects on the brain from reaching orgasm translate to boosting our immune system and making our body healthier?</p><p>The increase of oxytocin and dopamine that causes a decrease in cortisol levels can help boost our immune system because cortisol (well-known for being a stress-inducing hormone) actually helps maintain your immune system if released in small doses. </p><p>According to <a href="https://www.health24.com/Sex/Great-sex/incredible-health-benefits-to-masturbating-20181030-2" target="_blank">Dr. Jennifer Landa</a>, a hormone-therapy specialist, masturbation can produce the right kind of environment for a strengthened immune system to thrive. </p><p><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15316239" target="_blank">A study</a> conducted by the Department of Medical Psychology at the University Clinic of Essen (in Germany) showed similar results. A group of 11 volunteers were asked to participate in a study that would look at the effects of orgasm through masturbation on the white blood cell count and immune system.</p><p>During this experiment, the white blood cell count of each participant was analyzed through measures that were taken 5 minutes before and 45 minutes after reaching a self-induced orgasm. </p><p>The results confirmed that sexual arousal and orgasm increased the number of white blood cells, particularly the natural killer cells that help fight off infections. </p><p>The findings confirm that our immune system is positively affected by sexual arousal and self-induced orgasm and promote even more research into the positive impacts of sexual arousal and orgasm. </p>
Masturbation can ease and prevent pain, which allows you to achieve the restful sleep that helps your immune system stay strong and healthy.<p>The benefits of masturbation have long been debated, but the more research that is done on the topic the more we understand that there are many positive reactions that happen in our bodies and brains when we orgasm.</p><p>Orgasms can help prevent or mitigate pain, which boosts the immune system, preventing cold and flu symptoms. </p><p>According to neurologist and headache specialist Stefan Evers, about one in three patients experience relief from migraine attacks by experiencing sexual activity or orgasm. Evers and his team <a href="https://www.livescience.com/27642-sex-relieves-migraine-pain.html" target="_blank">conducted an experiment</a> with 800 migraine patients and 200 patients who suffered from cluster-headaches to see how their experiences with sexual activity impacted their pain levels. </p><p>The study showed that 60% of migraine sufferers experienced pain relief after participating in sexual activity that resulted in orgasm. Of the cluster-headache sufferers, about 50% said their headaches actually worsened after sexual arousal and orgasm. </p><p>Evers suggested in his findings that the people who did not experience pain relief from migraines of headaches during their sexual activity did not release as large amounts of endorphins as those who did experience pain relief. </p><p>According to <a href="https://www.sharecare.com/health/chronic-pain/chronic-pain-affect-immune-system" target="_blank">rheumatologist Dr. Harris McIlwain</a>, people who suffer from chronic pain have immune systems that are simply not functioning at full capacity - therefore, alleviating pain (through orgasm, as an example) can help boost the immune system. </p><p>Orgasms can also promote relaxation and make it easier to fall asleep. Serotonin, oxytocin, and norepinephrine are all hormones that are released during sexual arousal and orgasm, and all three are known for counteracting stress hormones and promoting relaxation, which makes it much easier for you to fall asleep.</p><p>There are <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1233384" target="_blank">several studies</a> showing that serotonin and norepinephrine help our body cycle through REM and deep non-REM sleeping cycles. During these sleep cycles, the immune system releases proteins called <a href="https://www.sleepfoundation.org/articles/how-sleep-affects-your-immunity" target="_blank"><span id="selection-marker-1" class="redactor-selection-marker"></span>cytokines<span id="selection-marker-2" class="redactor-selection-marker"></span></a>, which target infection and inflammation. This is a critical part of our immune response. Cytokines are both produced and released throughout our bodies while we sleep, which proves the importance of a good sleep schedule to a healthy immune system.</p>
Masturbation promotes a high-functioning immune system; a healthy immune system prevents cold and flu.<p>The immune system is a balanced network of cells and organs that work together to defend you against infections and diseases by stopped threats like bacteria and viruses from entering your system. While there are many things we need to do to keep our immune systems functioning at optimal levels, masturbation (or other means of achieving orgasm) has proven to have positive effects on the immune system as a whole.</p><p>Just as bad habits (such as an inconsistent sleep schedule or harmful chemicals in your body) can slow your immune system, positive habits (such as a healthy sleep schedule and active sex life) can help boost your immune system. </p>
The word "learning" opens up space for more people, places, and ideas.
- The terms 'education' and 'learning' are often used interchangeably, but there is a cultural connotation to the former that can be limiting. Education naturally links to schooling, which is only one form of learning.
- Gregg Behr, founder and co-chair of Remake Learning, believes that this small word shift opens up the possibilities in terms of how and where learning can happen. It also becomes a more inclusive practice, welcoming in a larger, more diverse group of thinkers.
- Post-COVID, the way we think about what learning looks like will inevitably change, so it's crucial to adjust and begin building the necessary support systems today.
The coronavirus pandemic has brought out the perception of selfishness among many.
- Selfish behavior has been analyzed by philosophers and psychologists for centuries.
- New research shows people may be wired for altruistic behavior and get more benefits from it.
- Crisis times tend to increase self-centered acts.