Get smarter, faster. Subscribe to our daily newsletter.
The last frontier on planet Earth will be mapped by 2030
Only 5-15% of the World Ocean’s floor has been mapped. This herculean effort is set to tackle our planet’s last frontier.
Outer space isn’t the last great frontier. There’s a place virtually unknown to modern science right here on Earth, lurking below its murky depths. As it stands, only a minuscule space—around 5-15% of the World Ocean’s floor, has been mapped, mainly from disparate sources. That’s quite a lot of unexplored real estate. Consider that the World Ocean covers 71% of the planet’s surface. This glaring knowledge gap won’t last long.
The Seabed 2030 project plans to step in and map the entire world’s ocean floor by 2030. This is an international collaboration, sponsored by Japan’s Nippon Foundation and the nonprofit GEBCO. GEBCO stands for: General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans. The nonprofit is a part of both the International Hydrographic Organization and UNESCO.
Project officials plan to map some 140 million sq. miles (approx. 362,598,335 sq. km) total. Not only wide, the World Ocean is deep in most places. 93% of it is 650 ft. (200 m) down or deeper. A global bathymetric map would be quite a feat. But it’s possible with current technology. All told, the project is expected to cost $3 billion. Fortunately, the whole thing doesn’t have to be completed from scratch.
To map the ocean’s floor, ships will use a special kind of sonar called multibeam bathymetry. Image credit: The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
Fishing boats, pleasure craft, and commercial companies are encouraged to contribute to the cause. These include companies like Ocean Infinity, which is currently searching for Malaysia Airlines flight MH370. Another is Dutch undersea energy exploration company Furgo, which previously searched for the famous missing flight. Furgo alone has surveyed approx. 25,100 sq. miles (65,000 sq. km) of the ocean floor. All interested parties can send their data to the International Hydrographic Organisation in Monaco, which hosts GEBCO. The data will eventually be available to the public through an iOS app.
Bathymetry is the study of the beds or floors of bodies of water. Today, it’s synonymous with the term “submarine topography.” The ships used to fill in the gaps for this project will utilize a sonar system called multibeam bathymetry. This shoots out sound waves in all directions underneath the hull and picks up topographic formations when they bounce back.
Being able to ensonify the entire seafloor allows the ship’s computer to create high resolution, 3D maps. Data collection will be made through underwater autonomous vehicles (UAVs) or drones. These are cost-effective and can dive to parts of the ocean dangerous to humans and where sensing technology has a hard time reaching.
The project was officially launched at the United Nations Ocean Conference in New York City, on June 6, 2017. The majority of the work however, is expected to take place in the 2021-2030 period. Once all of the data is collected, academic research centers in the US, Germany, Sweden, and New Zealand will begin to go through it, each focusing on a specific ocean basin. The Global Center of the project, responsible for centralization and management, is the National Oceanography Center, in Southampton, the UK. Here, researchers will sew all the pieces together.
3D model of seafloor topography. Image credit: Australian Government, Australian Transport Safety Bureau, Geoscience Australia, Wikipedia Commons.
The undersea landscape is astounding. There are trenches so deep, they make the Grand Canyon look like a dimple. There are vast, towering mountain ranges, incredible rock formations, valleys, volcanoes, channels, and plains. Gaining greater knowledge of seafloor topography might help us better understand weather patterns, manage conservation efforts, and maintain the world’s fisheries, which today feed millions. We may even gain knowledge of how to better protect coastal communities from dangerous storms like Tsunami’s. On another front, we could make headway in plate tectonics—specifically into the movements of the southern continents in prehistoric times.
“We know more about the surface of the Moon and Mars than our own backyard,” Seabed 2030 director Satinder Bindra told Reuters. “For too long now we have treated our own oceans as a forgotten frontier.” Bindra calls the project “essential.” At a meeting February in Tokyo, he said that since its launch, “the project has made rapid progress, drawing on the experience of some 28 international organizations and networks spread across more than 50 countries.”
The main focus isn’t commercial but scientific. That said, it’s thought that the project will uncover vast amounts of mineral wealth and untapped resources. Oil, diamonds, precious metals, rare minerals, and yes, even sunken treasure might be discovered. Of course, there’s a fear that resource exploitation could lead to further environmental degradation. Besides this, the project could get hung-up in geopolitical hotspots. Certainly, areas of the South China Sea, the Red Sea, and the Gulf of Aden will be difficult to gain access too. Still, project officials believe they’ll have the map in its entirety by the deadline they’ve imposed.
To learn more about this project, click here:
What is human dignity? Here's a primer, told through 200 years of great essays, lectures, and novels.
- Human dignity means that each of our lives have an unimpeachable value simply because we are human, and therefore we are deserving of a baseline level of respect.
- That baseline requires more than the absence of violence, discrimination, and authoritarianism. It means giving individuals the freedom to pursue their own happiness and purpose.
- We look at incredible writings from the last 200 years that illustrate the push for human dignity in regards to slavery, equality, communism, free speech and education.
The inherent worth of all human beings<p>Human dignity is the inherent worth of each individual human being. Recognizing human dignity means respecting human beings' special value—value that sets us apart from other animals; value that is intrinsic and cannot be lost.</p> <p>Liberalism—the broad political philosophy that organizes society around liberty, justice, and equality—is rooted in the idea of human dignity. Liberalism assumes each of our lives, plans, and preferences have some unimpeachable value, not because of any objective evaluation or contribution to a greater good, but simply because they belong to a human being. We are human, and therefore deserving of a baseline level of respect. </p> <p>Because so many of us take human dignity for granted—just a fact of our humanness—it's usually only when someone's dignity is ignored or violated that we feel compelled to talk about it. </p> <p>But human dignity means more than the absence of violence, discrimination, and authoritarianism. It means giving individuals the freedom to pursue their own happiness and purpose—a freedom that can be hampered by restrictive social institutions or the tyranny of the majority. The liberal ideal of the good society is not just peaceful but also pluralistic: It is a society in which we respect others' right to think and live differently than we do.</p>
From the 19th century to today<p>With <a href="https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?year_start=1800&year_end=2019&content=human+dignity&corpus=26&smoothing=3&direct_url=t1%3B%2Chuman%20dignity%3B%2Cc0" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Google Books Ngram Viewer</a>, we can chart mentions of human dignity from 1800-2019.</p><img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNDg0ODU0My9vcmlnaW4ucG5nIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY1MTUwMzE4MX0.bu0D_0uQuyNLyJjfRESNhu7twkJ5nxu8pQtfa1w3hZs/img.png?width=980" id="7ef38" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="9974c7bef3812fcb36858f325889e3c6" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
American novelist, writer, playwright, poet, essayist and civil rights activist James Baldwin at his home in Saint-Paul-de-Vence, southern France, on November 6, 1979.
Credit: Ralph Gatti/AFP via Getty Images
The future of dignity<p>Around the world, people are still working toward the full and equal recognition of human dignity. Every year, new speeches and writings help us understand what dignity is—not only what it looks like when dignity is violated but also what it looks like when dignity is honored. In his posthumous essay, Congressman Lewis wrote, "When historians pick up their pens to write the story of the 21st century, let them say that it was your generation who laid down the heavy burdens of hate at last and that peace finally triumphed over violence, aggression and war."</p> <p>The more we talk about human dignity, the better we understand it. And the sooner we can make progress toward a shared vision of peace, freedom, and mutual respect for all. </p>
Scientists find that bursts of gamma rays may exceed the speed of light and cause time-reversibility.
- Astrophysicists propose that gamma-ray bursts may exceed the speed of light.
- The superluminal jets may also be responsible for time-reversibility.
- The finding doesn't go against Einstein's theory because this effect happens in the jet medium not a vacuum.
Jet bursting out of a blazar. Black-hole-powered galaxies called blazars are the most common sources detected by NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.
Cosmic death beams: Understanding gamma ray bursts<div class="rm-shortcode" data-media_id="cu2knVEk" data-player_id="FvQKszTI" data-rm-shortcode-id="c6cfd20fdf31c82cb206ade8ce21ba3f"> <div id="botr_cu2knVEk_FvQKszTI_div" class="jwplayer-media" data-jwplayer-video-src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/cu2knVEk-FvQKszTI.js"> <img src="https://cdn.jwplayer.com/thumbs/cu2knVEk-1920.jpg" class="jwplayer-media-preview" /> </div> <script src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/cu2knVEk-FvQKszTI.js"></script> </div>
Philosophers have been asking the question for hundreds of years. Now neuroscientists are joining the quest to find out.
- The debate over whether or not humans have free will is centuries old and ongoing. While studies have confirmed that our brains perform many tasks without conscious effort, there remains the question of how much we control and when it matters.
- According to Dr. Uri Maoz, it comes down to what your definition of free will is and to learning more about how we make decisions versus when it is ok for our brain to subconsciously control our actions and movements.
- "If we understand the interplay between conscious and unconscious," says Maoz, "it might help us realize what we can control and what we can't."
Puerto Rico's iconic telescope facilitated important scientific discoveries while inspiring young scientists and the public imagination.
- The Arecibo Observatory's main telescope collapsed on Tuesday morning.
- Although officials had been planning to demolish the telescope, the accident marked an unceremonious end to a beloved astronomical tool.
- The Arecibo radio telescope has facilitated many discoveries in astronomy, including the mapping of near-Earth asteroids and the detection of exoplanets.
Bradley Rivera via twitter.com<p>In 1963, the concave dish was built into a natural sinkhole on the northern coast of Puerto Rico. The location was <a href="https://www.space.com/20984-arecibo-observatory.html" target="_blank">picked because it was near the equator,</a> providing scientists a clear view of planets passing overhead, and also of the ionosphere, which is the uniquely reactive layer of Earth's upper atmosphere where the northern lights form.</p><p>Since its construction, scientists have used the Arecibo telescope to map near-Earth asteroids, detect gravitational waves, study pulsars, detect exoplanets and <a href="https://www.seti.org/goodbye-arecibo" target="_blank">search for alien civilizations</a>, among other projects. Here's a brief look at some of the discoveries and accomplishments made using the Arecibo telescope:</p><ul><li>1964: Astronomer <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gordon_Pettengill" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Gordon Pettengill</a> discovers that Mercury's rotation period is 59 days, significantly shorter than the previous prediction of 88 days.</li><li>1974: Physicists Russell Alan Hulse and Joseph Hooton Taylor Jr. discovers the first binary pulsar, for which they won a Nobel Prize in Physics.</li><li>1974: Scientists use the telescope to transmit the "Arecibo message" to <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Globular_Cluster_in_Hercules" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">globular star cluster M13</a>. The message, when translated into image form, contains basic information about humanity and human knowledge: the numbers one to 10, a map of our solar system, an illustration of a human being, and the atomic numbers of certain elements.</li><li>1989: Scientists use the telescope to image an asteroid for the first time.</li><li>1992: Astronomers Alex Wolszczan and Dale Frail become the first to discover exoplanets.</li></ul>
The Google-owned company developed a system that can reliably predict the 3D shapes of proteins.