Scientists Discover a Gene for Pain Thanks to Some Super-Tough Italians
This could lead to new pain relievers that mute the sensation without increasing the risk of addiction.
Pain is the body’s way of protecting itself, and communicating to our conscious mind that something is terribly wrong. We all have varying sensitivity to it. Recent research has found that how sensitive or tolerant you are to pain depends on your genetic makeup. Today, 25 million Americans suffer from chronic pain. That’s about 11% of the population. This is moderate to severe pain occurring every day for three straight months.
Experts say the chronic pain epidemic has contributed heavily to the opioid crisis. Because of this, medical researchers have been looking to find a pain control method that isn’t addictive. Unfortunately, we don’t have a good grip of all the ins and outs of pain and how it works in the central and parasympathetic nervous system. But advancements in this understanding are happening all the time. For instance, we’ve recently learned that genes may have more to do with it than we thought.
Take the curious case of an Italian family who can hardly feel pain. Researchers at University College London (UCL) recently identified the Marsili family and the genetic underpinnings of a condition they all share, congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP). The family includes a 78-year-old grandmother, her two daughters and their three children.
Since our understanding of pain is limited, we rely on opioid painkillers for chronic pain. But these are highly addictive and not very effective long-term. Credit: Getty Images.
Those with CIP hardly feel any pain at all. While that may sound like a euphoric lifestyle, the condition means people can easily hurt themselves, very seriously, without even noticing it. Children with it have little to prevent them from taking part in reckless behavior. Moreover, should one be unlucky enough to develop a health problem where pain is the symptom that tells that something is wrong, that illness can develop until it’s in a late stage, unbeknownst to the person who has it.
When UCL experts examined the family, they found that some of them had fractures they weren’t even aware of. James Cox was one researcher on this project. He hails from the University’s Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research.
Cox told New Scientist, “Sometimes they feel pain in the initial break but it goes away very quickly. For example, Letizia broke her shoulder while skiing, but then kept skiing for the rest of the day and drove home. She didn’t get it checked out until the next day.” Cox said they can burn themselves and not feel a thing. And for those who enjoy the spicy tingle a chili pepper delivers, pity the poor members of the Marsili family, who are immune to such a sensation.
Not feeling the pain sensation sounds heavenly. Yet, we would miss recognizing when the body has been seriously injured. Credit: Getty Images.
Led by Cox, the researchers team conducted a series of experiments on the family. They found the Italians had a normal level of nerves on the surface of their skin, what’s known as intra-epidermal nerve fiber density. Next, they studied the genomes of family members. Here, the scientists hit pay dirt. They found a mutation in the gene ZFHX2.
Next, they bred special mice without the gene. Cox and colleagues discovered they were far more tolerant to pain than normal mice. But counterintuitively, they became more sensitive to heat. This tells Cox and colleagues that the gene may play a role in regulating what pain sensations an individual experiences. This gene seems to control the activity of 16 of its counterparts, scientists say.
The next piece is to sort out how each gene involved in this network contributes or what role it plays. Cox and his team say more than one gene is involved. But this allows for the discovery of a new target, which could lead to the development of a novel, non-addictive pain reliever. As for the Marsili’s, Cox and colleagues told them they might be able to knock out the mutation and give them normal pain sensations, but the family said they’re good. They want to stay as they are.
Want to learn about a non-pharmaceutical method pain control? Click here:
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Whether or not women think beards are sexy has to do with "moral disgust"
- A new study found that women perceive men with facial hair to be more attractive as well as physically and socially dominant.
- Women tend to associate more masculine faces with physical strength, social assertiveness, and formidability.
- Women who display higher levels of "moral disgust," or feelings of repugnance toward taboo behaviors, are more likely to prefer hairy faces.
Beards and perceptions of masculinity<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMjU5OTg0MC9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY0NzkxMjM3N30.cH-GqNwP5GVqvstgJWAhBPn1B_lYpVEAI0I7iax7EQw/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=0%2C1900%2C0%2C849&height=700" id="caae6" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="cb0a355a4e8e1899789bc45f3f7aef56" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
Photo Credit: Wikimedia<p>The study used 919 American (mostly white) women ages 18-70 who rated 30 pictures of men they were shown with various stages of facial hair growth. The photographs depicted men with faces that had been digitally altered to look more feminine or more masculine, with a beard and without a beard. The women rated the men according to perceived attractiveness for long-term and short-term relationships. The study found that the more facial hair the men had, the higher the men were rated on their attractiveness, particularly for their suitability for a long-term relationship.</p><p>Part of this might be attributed to facial masculinity — i.e. protruding brow ridge, wide cheekbones, thick jawline, and deeply set narrow eyes — which conveys information to a woman about a man's underlying health and formidability. Women tend to associate more masculine faces with physical strength and social assertiveness. It can also indicate a man with a superior immune response. The researchers suggested that their findings favoring bearded men could be due to the fact that facial hair enhances the masculine facial features on a man's face, like creating the illusion of a thicker jaw line. This could communicate direct benefits to women like resources and protection that would enhance survival among mothers and their infants. In other words, while a beard doesn't mean superior genetics in and of itself, it might be a primitive, ornamental way of saying, "Hey girl, I'm a testosterone-fueled lean, mean, pathogen fighting machine." <br></p><p>It could also be that a beard becomes its own destiny. The researchers in this study cite prior research that found that by growing a beard, men felt more masculine and had higher levels of serum testosterone, which was linked to a higher level of social dominance. They also tended to subscribe to more old-school beliefs about gender roles in their relationships with women as compared to men with clean-shaven faces.<span></span><br></p>
What does disgust have to do with beard preference?<p>Obviously, not all women dig beards. The researchers were particularly interested in what traits make a women prefer bearded men over clean-shaven faces. They looked into several factors including a woman's disgust levels on various concepts, her desire to become pregnant, and her exposure to facial hair in her personal life. </p><p>According to the study, women who were not into facial hair were turned-off by potential parasites or other critters they imagined could be in the hair or skin. Women ranking high on this "ectoparasite disgust" scale might have viewed beards as a sign of poor grooming habits. However, women who ranked higher in levels of "pathogen" did find the bearded men to be desirable, possibly because they perceived beards as a signal of good health and immune function. An intriguing discovery in the study was links to morality. Women who displayed higher levels of "moral disgust," or feelings of repugnance toward taboo behaviors, were more likely to prefer hairy faces. The authors opined that this could reflect a link between beardedness, politically conservative outlooks, and traditional views regarding performances of masculinity in heterosexual relationships.</p>
Additional findings<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMjU5OTg1My9vcmlnaW4uZ2lmIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYyNDI1NjUyOX0.P9B8WbmJR0q4nfzYZKbuNSA-2SAigVWJgrQE-_Gxlds/img.gif?width=980" id="49143" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="2ed3b1d6f20fc170bf2974646e565e8d" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />Giphy<p>The correlations that existed between married and single women's rating on the attractiveness of beards were not particularly clear, although the researchers noted that single and married women who wanted children tended to find beards more attractive than the women who didn't want children. They also found that women with bearded husbands found beards to be more attractive, which might indicate that social exposure to beards influences how desirable they are perceived of as being. Or it could be that men with wives who like beards grow beards.</p><p>It's important to note that culture plays a huge role in how attractive women perceive certain male characteristics as being. This study looked at a small, culturally specific group of American women, so no big, universal claims should be made about masculinity, facial hair, and male desirability to women. However, research like this is important in highlighting how human grooming decisions are driven by much more than fashion trends. Sociobiological, economic, and ecological factors all play a part in the way we choose to present ourselves.</p>
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