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Schizophrenia is likely a side effect of our brain’s complex evolution
This discovery could lead to not only a better understanding of our evolution but to new treatment options for schizophrenics.
Schizophrenia affects only about 1% of the US population. The condition is typified by confused thoughts and speech, delusions and hallucinations. Symptoms start off gradual and become more severe over time. It’s thought that schizophrenia is a latent condition that’s triggered by some type of event in a person’s life, usually occurring between the ages of 16 and 30.
Men are more prone to it than women. A miniscule percentage of such patients actually become violent and harm themselves or others. Even so, having it can seriously impact a person’s quality of life and ability to function.
Fortunately today, it can be properly managed through medication. And in recent decades, we’ve learned more about this complex neurological condition than ever before. For instance, a study out in October found that 79% of the condition is genetic in origin.
Experts predict we will find a cure for schizophrenia in about 10 years. As a result of our growing understanding, neuroscientists suspect that they also know why it developed in the first place. Those who suffer from it may be paying the price for humankind’s advanced cognitive capabilities.
A new Australian study lends credence to this view. Scientists found a specific genetic pathway comprised of 97 genes, linked to genetic changes in the brain region associated with schizophrenia. This supports the theory that the psychiatric condition may be an unwanted side effect of our brain's evolution. Researchers at the Florey Institute for Neuroscience and Mental Health in Parkville, Australia, made this discovery. Their findings were published in the journal npj Schizophrenia.
Before the advent of science, those with schizophrenia were thought to be possessed. Today we know that epigenetic changes trigger schizophrenia. It’s set off by some type of trauma, ranging from a dysfunctional family to childbirth. Credit: Getty Images.
A 2008 study published in the open access journal Genome Biology suggests that during our evolution, we reached a point where our brain met the limit of its cognitive capabilities. To overcome this, the organ evolved rapidly in order to increase the rate at which it performed metabolic processes. Certain psychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia, are a byproduct of these dramatic molecular changes, one prominent theory states.
Some scientists suggest that the creation of human language and speech came with a price, the entrance of autism and schizophrenia into the human genome. In fact, disorganized or jumbled speech is one of the telltale symptoms of schizophrenia. Another indicator, while other disorders are shared with other species, only humans’ experience schizophrenia.
In the 2008 study, scientists discovered that “both genes and metabolites relating to energy metabolism and energy-expensive brain functions...(which are) altered in schizophrenia and, at the same time, appear to have changed rapidly during recent human evolution, probably as a result of positive selection.” In 2006, scientists discovered human accelerated regions (HARs) in the genome. These are areas in the human DNA that saw accelerated evolution.
Building on that, a 2015 study led by Joel Dudley at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, found that certain genes controlled by HARs are associated with schizophrenia. The problem is, these are essential to neurological function, suggesting they were more important to our development than other genes, even though they carry within them a risk.
Credit: Jurgitta (Own work), Wikimedia Commons
In this most recent study, researchers’ examined the brains of 15 people (postmortem) who had schizophrenia and 15 who didn’t. Scientists have speculated for decades that quick evolutionary changes in the frontal pole of the brain, may have helped us evolve greater intellectual capacity, as a result of alterations in the brain’s metabolism.
In this study, they looked specifically at messenger RNA (mRNA). This is a type of RNA which carries snippets of DNA to other parts of a cell, in order for it to be processed. They examined mRNA in the frontal pole of the brain. This area maintains cognitive flexibility and acts as the foundation for planning and reasoning, two skills impaired in schizophrenics.
Researchers examined in particular the cingulate cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, along with nearby areas known to be associated with schizophrenia. 566 genetic changes were discovered in these brain regions in schizophrenics. According to Professor Brain Dean, a co-author on the study, "Though this is not fully understood, our data suggests the frontal area of the brain is severely affected by such changes." He added, "There is the argument that schizophrenia is an unwanted side effect of developing a complex human brain and our findings seem to support that argument."
To learn more about schizophrenia, click here.
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Construction of the $500 billion dollar tech city-state of the future is moving ahead.
- The futuristic megacity Neom is being built in Saudi Arabia.
- The city will be fully automated, leading in health, education and quality of life.
- It will feature an artificial moon, cloud seeding, robotic gladiators and flying taxis.
The Red Sea area where Neom will be built:
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Frequent shopping for single items adds to our carbon footprint.
- A new study shows e-commerce sites like Amazon leave larger greenhouse gas footprints than retail stores.
- Ordering online from retail stores has an even smaller footprint than going to the store yourself.
- Greening efforts by major e-commerce sites won't curb wasteful consumer habits. Consolidating online orders can make a difference.
A pile of recycled cardboard sits on the ground at Recology's Recycle Central on January 4, 2018 in San Francisco, California.
Photo by Justin Sullivan/Getty Images<p>A large part of the reason is speed. In a competitive market, pure players use the equation, <em>speed + convenience</em>, to drive adoption. This is especially relevant to the "last mile" GHG footprint: the distance between the distribution center and the consumer.</p><p>Interestingly, the smallest GHG footprint occurs when you order directly from a physical store—even smaller than going there yourself. Pure players, such as Amazon, are the greatest offenders. Variables like geographic location matter; the team looked at shopping in the UK, the US, China, and the Netherlands. </p><p>Sadegh Shahmohammadi, a PhD student at the Netherlands' Radboud University and corresponding author of the paper, <a href="https://www.cnn.com/2020/02/26/tech/greenhouse-gas-emissions-retail/index.html" target="_blank">says</a> the above "pattern holds true in countries where people mostly drive. It really depends on the country and consumer behavior there."</p><p>The researchers write that this year-and-a-half long study pushes back on previous research that claims online shopping to be better in terms of GHG footprints.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"They have, however, compared the GHG emissions per shopping event and did not consider the link between the retail channels and the basket size, which leads to a different conclusion than that of the current study."</p><p>Online retail is where convenience trumps environment: people tend to order one item at a time when shopping on pure player sites, whereas they stock up on multiple items when visiting a store. Consumers will sometimes order a number of separate items over the course of a week rather than making one trip to purchase everything they need. </p><p>While greening efforts by online retailers are important, until a shift in consumer attitude changes, the current carbon footprint will be a hard obstacle to overcome. Amazon is trying to have it both ways—carbon-free and convenience addicted—and the math isn't adding up. If you need to order things, do it online, but try to consolidate your purchases as much as possible.</p><p>--</p><p><em>Stay in touch with Derek on <a href="http://www.twitter.com/derekberes" target="_blank">Twitter</a>, <a href="https://www.facebook.com/DerekBeresdotcom" target="_blank">Facebook</a> and <a href="https://derekberes.substack.com/" target="_blank">Substack</a>. His next book is</em> "<em>Hero's Dose: The Case For Psychedelics in Ritual and Therapy."</em></p>
Building a personal connection with students can counteract some negative side effects of remote learning.
- Not being able to engage with students in-person due to the pandemic has presented several new challenges for educators, both technical and social. Digital tools have changed the way we all think about learning, but George Couros argues that more needs to be done to make up for what has been lost during "emergency remote teaching."
- One interesting way he has seen to bridge that gap and strengthen teacher-student and student-student relationships is through an event called Identity Day. Giving students the opportunity to share something they are passionate about makes them feel more connected and gets them involved in their education.
- "My hope is that we take these skills and these abilities we're developing through this process and we actually become so much better for our kids when we get back to our face-to-face setting," Couros says. He adds that while no one can predict the future, we can all do our part to adapt to it.
Chronic irregular sleep in children was associated with psychotic experiences in adolescence, according to a recent study out of the University of Birmingham's School of Psychology.