Do Religious States Have a Wider or Narrower Gender Pay Gap?
New report has some surprising findings when it comes to the gender pay gap.
The faithful have long argued that religiousness helps safeguard moral order, human rights, and equality. Without it, they argue, inequity rules the day. Yet, a new report by the Economic Policy Institute, calls such claims into question, at least as far as equality is concerned. Those states deemed more religious actually had a larger gender pay gap than those less so, the report found. The most religious states according to an earlier Gallup Poll are Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Utah. These also had the widest gender pay gap. Washington, D.C. however, had the thinnest.
Travis Wiseman, director of the International Business program at Mississippi State University and Nabamita Dutta of the University of Wisconsin, conducted a previous study which reached similar conclusions. They found that an “unconscious bias” existed against women, much like what racial and ethnic minorities face. Though they determined the religiosity influenced economics, and that this was an under-researched correlation, the reasons why were clearer. This report sheds more light on the phenomenon
Across the country on average, for every dollar a man makes per hour, a woman makes $.83 cents. But in more religious states, the gap is larger. In Louisiana, a woman gets paid $.775 cents for every dollar a man makes. In Alabama it’s $.792 cents, Mississippi $.835 cents, and in Utah $.753 cents. While in Washington D.C., its $.929 cents per dollar.
The correlation wasn’t exact, however. For instance, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Pennsylvania, which are not particularly religious states, had significant gaps. In New Jersey, the rate was $.80 to a man’s dollar, in Connecticut $.801 and Pennsylvania, $.79. Meanwhile Tennessee, a religious state, had a far lower pay gap, with women earning $.879 cents to a male counterpart’s buck. Service and sales jobs tend to have a lower pay gap. Since many of these are in Tennessee that might explain it.
The industries in a state and the types of jobs available also influence the gender pay gap.
In terms of race, white and Asian women saw a greater pay gap than Hispanic and black ones. This had more to do with the fact that white and Asian men tend to earn more. White, non-Hispanic women earned $.90 to a man’s dollar, while black women made $.65 and Hispanic women, $.58.
Other factors that affect the gender pay gap include whether it is mostly a rural or urban state, and the type of industry there. Rural states had greater discrepancy than urban ones. Wyoming had a very high gender pay gap for instance, even though it was among one of the least faithful. West Virginia, which is the third most rural state in the country, had an extremely high discrepancy.
So what is causing the gap in religious states? Just as any good parent or teacher knows, children live up or down to expectations. Elise Gould was the principal author on this report. She told Business Insider that a focus on tradition in religion often pushes girls into customary gender roles. How children play is also part of what career they are tracked for. While girls in these states are expected to carry dolls and take part in domestic play, boys build things and take part in more industrious play.
Due to lower expectations for girls in math and science in these states, they are more likely to have lower test scores in these areas, according to a study published in Journal of Economic Perspectives, which Gould’s report cited. Those states with a larger pay gap between sexes also had more divergent test scores in science and math between boys and girls.
Alabama, Mississippi, Kentucky, and Tennessee showed the highest discrepancy in scores. With math and science thought of as the realm of boys, girls are persuaded to take up more right brain pursuits, such as the humanities, which tend to pay less and leave more time for traditional female activities, such as child rearing.
Girls get lower scores in math and science in religious states, where expectations for them may be lower.
Expectation influences girls as they grow to women. Those who tend to pursue a more challenging and prestigious career track tend to come from less religious states, where traditional gender roles are not as entrenched. But that isn’t the full story. In careers at the upper echelons of society, the gender pay gap widens.
Women are paid 26% less than their male counterparts at the upper tiers, nationwide. This was a wider chasm than at lower tiers which had a floor, comprised of a minimum wage and other such policies. At lower rungs, women made $.92 to a man’s dollar.
Another conclusion, the wage gap wasn’t likely to close due to education. At every education level, women were compensated less. Researchers also fortified the significance of the “motherhood penalty.” After having a child, a woman’s pay lags behind male colleagues and childless female ones, who have achieved the same education level. Yet, no “fatherhood penalty” had been identified.
Such data needs to be examined carefully. Sometimes good news isn’t what it seems. A narrowing of the pay gap does not necessarily mean progress, for instance. The gap narrowed significantly in 1979, the report states. Yet, it wasn’t due to the fact that women were being paid more. Instead, men’s pay had fallen.
So what can women do to close the gap? Join a union for one. Women in unions did do better than non-union workers. Unionized women made $.89 to a male counterpart’s greenback, while nonunionized women took home just $.82 cents.
Though traditionally, political action has gained advancements, the report suggests that the best way for women to close the gap was to enter into traditional male-oriented fields. But in such states, they may be fighting an uphill battle, particularly difficult without proper support.
To learn more about the gender pay gap click here:
It's just the current cycle that involves opiates, but methamphetamine, cocaine, and others have caused the trajectory of overdoses to head the same direction
- It appears that overdoses are increasing exponentially, no matter the drug itself
- If the study bears out, it means that even reducing opiates will not slow the trajectory.
- The causes of these trends remain obscure, but near the end of the write-up about the study, a hint might be apparent
Through computationally intensive computer simulations, researchers have discovered that "nuclear pasta," found in the crusts of neutron stars, is the strongest material in the universe.
- The strongest material in the universe may be the whimsically named "nuclear pasta."
- You can find this substance in the crust of neutron stars.
- This amazing material is super-dense, and is 10 billion times harder to break than steel.
Superman is known as the "Man of Steel" for his strength and indestructibility. But the discovery of a new material that's 10 billion times harder to break than steel begs the question—is it time for a new superhero known as "Nuclear Pasta"? That's the name of the substance that a team of researchers thinks is the strongest known material in the universe.
Unlike humans, when stars reach a certain age, they do not just wither and die, but they explode, collapsing into a mass of neurons. The resulting space entity, known as a neutron star, is incredibly dense. So much so that previous research showed that the surface of a such a star would feature amazingly strong material. The new research, which involved the largest-ever computer simulations of a neutron star's crust, proposes that "nuclear pasta," the material just under the surface, is actually stronger.
The competition between forces from protons and neutrons inside a neutron star create super-dense shapes that look like long cylinders or flat planes, referred to as "spaghetti" and "lasagna," respectively. That's also where we get the overall name of nuclear pasta.
Caplan & Horowitz/arXiv
Diagrams illustrating the different types of so-called nuclear pasta.
The researchers' computer simulations needed 2 million hours of processor time before completion, which would be, according to a press release from McGill University, "the equivalent of 250 years on a laptop with a single good GPU." Fortunately, the researchers had access to a supercomputer, although it still took a couple of years. The scientists' simulations consisted of stretching and deforming the nuclear pasta to see how it behaved and what it would take to break it.
While they were able to discover just how strong nuclear pasta seems to be, no one is holding their breath that we'll be sending out missions to mine this substance any time soon. Instead, the discovery has other significant applications.
One of the study's co-authors, Matthew Caplan, a postdoctoral research fellow at McGill University, said the neutron stars would be "a hundred trillion times denser than anything on earth." Understanding what's inside them would be valuable for astronomers because now only the outer layer of such starts can be observed.
"A lot of interesting physics is going on here under extreme conditions and so understanding the physical properties of a neutron star is a way for scientists to test their theories and models," Caplan added. "With this result, many problems need to be revisited. How large a mountain can you build on a neutron star before the crust breaks and it collapses? What will it look like? And most importantly, how can astronomers observe it?"
Another possibility worth studying is that, due to its instability, nuclear pasta might generate gravitational waves. It may be possible to observe them at some point here on Earth by utilizing very sensitive equipment.
The team of scientists also included A. S. Schneider from California Institute of Technology and C. J. Horowitz from Indiana University.
Check out the study "The elasticity of nuclear pasta," published in Physical Review Letters.
Scientists think constructing a miles-long wall along an ice shelf in Antarctica could help protect the world's largest glacier from melting.
- Rising ocean levels are a serious threat to coastal regions around the globe.
- Scientists have proposed large-scale geoengineering projects that would prevent ice shelves from melting.
- The most successful solution proposed would be a miles-long, incredibly tall underwater wall at the edge of the ice shelves.
The world's oceans will rise significantly over the next century if the massive ice shelves connected to Antarctica begin to fail as a result of global warming.
To prevent or hold off such a catastrophe, a team of scientists recently proposed a radical plan: build underwater walls that would either support the ice or protect it from warm waters.
In a paper published in The Cryosphere, Michael Wolovick and John Moore from Princeton and the Beijing Normal University, respectively, outlined several "targeted geoengineering" solutions that could help prevent the melting of western Antarctica's Florida-sized Thwaites Glacier, whose melting waters are projected to be the largest source of sea-level rise in the foreseeable future.
An "unthinkable" engineering project
"If [glacial geoengineering] works there then we would expect it to work on less challenging glaciers as well," the authors wrote in the study.
One approach involves using sand or gravel to build artificial mounds on the seafloor that would help support the glacier and hopefully allow it to regrow. In another strategy, an underwater wall would be built to prevent warm waters from eating away at the glacier's base.
The most effective design, according to the team's computer simulations, would be a miles-long and very tall wall, or "artificial sill," that serves as a "continuous barrier" across the length of the glacier, providing it both physical support and protection from warm waters. Although the study authors suggested this option is currently beyond any engineering feat humans have attempted, it was shown to be the most effective solution in preventing the glacier from collapsing.
Source: Wolovick et al.
An example of the proposed geoengineering project. By blocking off the warm water that would otherwise eat away at the glacier's base, further sea level rise might be preventable.
But other, more feasible options could also be effective. For example, building a smaller wall that blocks about 50% of warm water from reaching the glacier would have about a 70% chance of preventing a runaway collapse, while constructing a series of isolated, 1,000-foot-tall columns on the seafloor as supports had about a 30% chance of success.
Still, the authors note that the frigid waters of the Antarctica present unprecedently challenging conditions for such an ambitious geoengineering project. They were also sure to caution that their encouraging results shouldn't be seen as reasons to neglect other measures that would cut global emissions or otherwise combat climate change.
"There are dishonest elements of society that will try to use our research to argue against the necessity of emissions' reductions. Our research does not in any way support that interpretation," they wrote.
"The more carbon we emit, the less likely it becomes that the ice sheets will survive in the long term at anything close to their present volume."
A 2015 report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine illustrates the potentially devastating effects of ice-shelf melting in western Antarctica.
"As the oceans and atmosphere warm, melting of ice shelves in key areas around the edges of the Antarctic ice sheet could trigger a runaway collapse process known as Marine Ice Sheet Instability. If this were to occur, the collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) could potentially contribute 2 to 4 meters (6.5 to 13 feet) of global sea level rise within just a few centuries."
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