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Why Gender Reassignment Surgery Isn't a Cure-all for Many Trans People
Some patients who went through gender reassignment surgery reported feeling just as out of place. A few were even suicidal.
Imagine coming to the realization that you are in the wrong body. Inside you feel a certain way, but your appearance reflects something different. How do you cope with this dichotomy? Can you? If you’re transgendered, one approach is sexual reassignment surgery. Correct the outside appearance, and the symmetry should allay any conflict. However, a new meta-analysis conducted by UK researchers finds that some patients are just as distressed after the operation as before. Researchers reviewed 100 studies of post-operative transsexuals from around the globe to draw their conclusions.
British newspaper The Guardian was the motivating force behind this study. It interviewed several people who had gone through such an operation and regretted it. In the meta-analysis, researchers found zero evidence that undergoing such a procedure had any value to the patient. Researchers at the University of Birmingham's aggressive research intelligence facility (Arif) conducted the study.
The director of Arif, Chris Hyde, expressed doubt on whether gender reassignment surgery was beneficial. “There's still a large number of people who have the surgery but remain traumatized,” he said. “Often to the point of committing suicide." Unfortunately, in their final analysis, Arif investigators determined that the lion’s share of the research on this topic so far was poorly designed and executed.
Though things have been tough for the transgendered, acceptance is beginning to take root.
Between 100 and 500 of these procedures occur in the US in any given year, according to the Surgery Encyclopedia, although a separate report indicates that, in terms of male-to-female transitions (MF) alone, between 800 and 1,000 occur annually.
According to some accounts, those who undergo a sex change sometimes feel the hormone therapy, which they must undergo for a year prior to surgery, “pushes” them into it. Others say they will never be accepted in their new body, and so would rather go back to the old one. In one of the studies, over half of the participant pool disappeared. The reason was unknown.
This may reflect the disdain for their new body or worse, according to Dr. Hyde. Though the majority of patients do well, Dr. Hyde contends, those who do not are woefully unprepared for how bad they feel. Some say that losing half of the participants in such a study reflects how little regard the transgendered receive in society.
A recent study out of the University of California, San Diego proves that many trans people feel at odds with their own physical gender. The ability to identify this may someday work to help trans children understand who they are. After puberty, transitioning becomes more difficult, medically speaking. This neurological discovery could help clear up questions of whether a transition should occur or not, as brain imaging data is objective. It could also help to tell whether a person will take well to sexual reassignment.
New study uses brain imaging to show neurological differences between transgendered and cisgendered.
Laura Case at UC San Diego wanted to see if she could use brain imaging to detect an incongruity between the brain and the body, in terms of gender identity. Eight trans men, or those who are female biologically but identify as male, were tested, along with eight cisgender women—used as a control group.
Using magnetoencephalography and an MRI, researchers found that trans men had less activity in a region of the brain known as the supramarginal gyrus. This area gives us a sense of our body parts belonging to us. It may mean that that sense is less pronounced in the transgendered than in cisgendered or traditionally gendered people. Whether this feeling came first and caused a biological response, or the biological manifestation shaped the psychology of the person, is not yet known. One previous study found that white matter in four regions of the brain of trans men closely resembled that of cisgender men.
More research is planned, which will look into the neurobiology of the transgendered, and the impact of sexual assignment surgery on them. For many of us, gender is something we take for granted. Unfortunately, trans people must try to find their way in a dichotomous world where the true diversity of humanity is often ignored, overlooked, ridiculed, or shunned.
The supramarginal gyrus. Image y Gray, vectorized by Mysid, colourd by was_a_bee. (File:Gray726.svg) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.
The truth is that many more people are born with ambiguous sex organs than we think. Oftentimes in the past, doctors at the time of birth decided arbitrarily which gender the child was going to be, simply by which sex organ was easier to fashion. Those born with ambiguous genatalia are known as “intersex.” This occurs in about one in 1,500 or 2,000 births or 1.7% of the world population. Due to this, for many, identifying as gender fluid may make more sense.
By all accounts, intersex babies are just as healthy as their cisgender counterparts. Unfortunately, our society’s focus on labels makes the lives of those who are trans difficult. Perhaps instead we should love them for who they really are, regardless of what they have in their pants.
The other important notion is that it's human nature to think, “If only _____ were true, I’d be content.” But no matter the physical situation, contentment cannot come from without, no matter how we think the outcome might transform us. Though in some cases, it seems gender reassignment surgery can be life changing, contentment itself, no matter your gender, be it strict or fluid, can only come from within.
To hear one person’s story click here:
What is human dignity? Here's a primer, told through 200 years of great essays, lectures, and novels.
- Human dignity means that each of our lives have an unimpeachable value simply because we are human, and therefore we are deserving of a baseline level of respect.
- That baseline requires more than the absence of violence, discrimination, and authoritarianism. It means giving individuals the freedom to pursue their own happiness and purpose.
- We look at incredible writings from the last 200 years that illustrate the push for human dignity in regards to slavery, equality, communism, free speech and education.
The inherent worth of all human beings<p>Human dignity is the inherent worth of each individual human being. Recognizing human dignity means respecting human beings' special value—value that sets us apart from other animals; value that is intrinsic and cannot be lost.</p> <p>Liberalism—the broad political philosophy that organizes society around liberty, justice, and equality—is rooted in the idea of human dignity. Liberalism assumes each of our lives, plans, and preferences have some unimpeachable value, not because of any objective evaluation or contribution to a greater good, but simply because they belong to a human being. We are human, and therefore deserving of a baseline level of respect. </p> <p>Because so many of us take human dignity for granted—just a fact of our humanness—it's usually only when someone's dignity is ignored or violated that we feel compelled to talk about it. </p> <p>But human dignity means more than the absence of violence, discrimination, and authoritarianism. It means giving individuals the freedom to pursue their own happiness and purpose—a freedom that can be hampered by restrictive social institutions or the tyranny of the majority. The liberal ideal of the good society is not just peaceful but also pluralistic: It is a society in which we respect others' right to think and live differently than we do.</p>
From the 19th century to today<p>With <a href="https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?year_start=1800&year_end=2019&content=human+dignity&corpus=26&smoothing=3&direct_url=t1%3B%2Chuman%20dignity%3B%2Cc0" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Google Books Ngram Viewer</a>, we can chart mentions of human dignity from 1800-2019.</p><img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNDg0ODU0My9vcmlnaW4ucG5nIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY1MTUwMzE4MX0.bu0D_0uQuyNLyJjfRESNhu7twkJ5nxu8pQtfa1w3hZs/img.png?width=980" id="7ef38" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="9974c7bef3812fcb36858f325889e3c6" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
American novelist, writer, playwright, poet, essayist and civil rights activist James Baldwin at his home in Saint-Paul-de-Vence, southern France, on November 6, 1979.
Credit: Ralph Gatti/AFP via Getty Images
The future of dignity<p>Around the world, people are still working toward the full and equal recognition of human dignity. Every year, new speeches and writings help us understand what dignity is—not only what it looks like when dignity is violated but also what it looks like when dignity is honored. In his posthumous essay, Congressman Lewis wrote, "When historians pick up their pens to write the story of the 21st century, let them say that it was your generation who laid down the heavy burdens of hate at last and that peace finally triumphed over violence, aggression and war."</p> <p>The more we talk about human dignity, the better we understand it. And the sooner we can make progress toward a shared vision of peace, freedom, and mutual respect for all. </p>
Scientists find that bursts of gamma rays may exceed the speed of light and cause time-reversibility.
- Astrophysicists propose that gamma-ray bursts may exceed the speed of light.
- The superluminal jets may also be responsible for time-reversibility.
- The finding doesn't go against Einstein's theory because this effect happens in the jet medium not a vacuum.
Jet bursting out of a blazar. Black-hole-powered galaxies called blazars are the most common sources detected by NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.
Cosmic death beams: Understanding gamma ray bursts<div class="rm-shortcode" data-media_id="cu2knVEk" data-player_id="FvQKszTI" data-rm-shortcode-id="c6cfd20fdf31c82cb206ade8ce21ba3f"> <div id="botr_cu2knVEk_FvQKszTI_div" class="jwplayer-media" data-jwplayer-video-src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/cu2knVEk-FvQKszTI.js"> <img src="https://cdn.jwplayer.com/thumbs/cu2knVEk-1920.jpg" class="jwplayer-media-preview" /> </div> <script src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/cu2knVEk-FvQKszTI.js"></script> </div>
Philosophers have been asking the question for hundreds of years. Now neuroscientists are joining the quest to find out.
- The debate over whether or not humans have free will is centuries old and ongoing. While studies have confirmed that our brains perform many tasks without conscious effort, there remains the question of how much we control and when it matters.
- According to Dr. Uri Maoz, it comes down to what your definition of free will is and to learning more about how we make decisions versus when it is ok for our brain to subconsciously control our actions and movements.
- "If we understand the interplay between conscious and unconscious," says Maoz, "it might help us realize what we can control and what we can't."
Puerto Rico's iconic telescope facilitated important scientific discoveries while inspiring young scientists and the public imagination.
- The Arecibo Observatory's main telescope collapsed on Tuesday morning.
- Although officials had been planning to demolish the telescope, the accident marked an unceremonious end to a beloved astronomical tool.
- The Arecibo radio telescope has facilitated many discoveries in astronomy, including the mapping of near-Earth asteroids and the detection of exoplanets.
Bradley Rivera via twitter.com<p>In 1963, the concave dish was built into a natural sinkhole on the northern coast of Puerto Rico. The location was <a href="https://www.space.com/20984-arecibo-observatory.html" target="_blank">picked because it was near the equator,</a> providing scientists a clear view of planets passing overhead, and also of the ionosphere, which is the uniquely reactive layer of Earth's upper atmosphere where the northern lights form.</p><p>Since its construction, scientists have used the Arecibo telescope to map near-Earth asteroids, detect gravitational waves, study pulsars, detect exoplanets and <a href="https://www.seti.org/goodbye-arecibo" target="_blank">search for alien civilizations</a>, among other projects. Here's a brief look at some of the discoveries and accomplishments made using the Arecibo telescope:</p><ul><li>1964: Astronomer <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gordon_Pettengill" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Gordon Pettengill</a> discovers that Mercury's rotation period is 59 days, significantly shorter than the previous prediction of 88 days.</li><li>1974: Physicists Russell Alan Hulse and Joseph Hooton Taylor Jr. discovers the first binary pulsar, for which they won a Nobel Prize in Physics.</li><li>1974: Scientists use the telescope to transmit the "Arecibo message" to <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Globular_Cluster_in_Hercules" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">globular star cluster M13</a>. The message, when translated into image form, contains basic information about humanity and human knowledge: the numbers one to 10, a map of our solar system, an illustration of a human being, and the atomic numbers of certain elements.</li><li>1989: Scientists use the telescope to image an asteroid for the first time.</li><li>1992: Astronomers Alex Wolszczan and Dale Frail become the first to discover exoplanets.</li></ul>
The Google-owned company developed a system that can reliably predict the 3D shapes of proteins.