Can you use narrative to shape your life?
Storytelling has been a human tradition for thousands of years and for good reason: It holds a powerful influence over our psychology.
- Some researchers argue that humans have been telling stories for tens of thousands of years.
- Because it's so deeply embedded in our psychology, the stories we tell about ourselves and others can have a major impact on our minds.
- How can we use storytelling to improve our lives?
Humans have been creating stories for a long time. Among the earliest examples are five Sumerian poems about Gilgamesh dating back to 2100 BC, which would later become the source material for the Epic of Gilgamesh nearly 1,400 years later. But we've been telling stories even before this. Some argue that mankind's earliest cave paintings, dating back 30,000 years, are a form of storytelling.
With a history as long as this, it should come as no surprise that narrative is deeply embedded in our psychology. We are constantly organizing things into stories, in spite or because of the fact that reality doesn't have a nice and neat structure like it does in our storytelling.
That stories are a corner stone of human psychology has not been lost on researchers. "Life stories do not simply reflect personality," wrote psychology professor Dan McAdams for the APA Handbook of Personality and Social Psychology. "They are personality, or more accurately, they are important parts of personality, along with other parts, like dispositional traits, goals, and values."
Much of McAdams' work has focused on how humans use stories to construct their identity. For example, in one study, McAdams and colleagues looked at the coherence of individuals' life stories and compared this with their overall well-being. A coherent story contained all the elements of a well-made story: sufficient context, a good structure, a consistent emotional tone or theme, and an integration into the overall world of the storyteller's life. The more coherent somebody's life story was, the greater their well-being. People who thought of their lives in more disconnected, unstructured, and disorganized ways tended to have lower well-being.
We can also use storytelling to our advantage, especially when it comes to dealing with trauma. Studies show that writing about traumatic experiences, though painful and unpleasant in the moment, can help people process and incorporate the traumatic event into the larger life story. During follow-ups from these studies, participants reported fewer illnesses, went to the doctors less often, suffered fewer symptoms of depression, were less likely to miss school and work, and performed better at work. Researchers speculate that by processing traumatic memories in this way, they are less likely to be compulsively recalled, causing further suffering.
Circumventing our critical thinking
But like anything deeply embedded in human nature, storytelling can also be used to manipulate. For instance, a recent study tried to assess the persuasive power of stories and facts. Over the course of three studies, the researchers presented a fictitious product and showed some participants a list of strong or weak facts about the product or a story with those strong or weak facts embedded within it. A fictitious phone, for instance, was advertised as being able to withstand a fall from 30 feet (a strong fact) or a fall from 3 feet (a weak fact).
They found that when weak facts were presented in stories, participants were persuaded to view the product more favorably compared to when they just read a list of facts. However, when strong facts were presented in stories, participants viewed the product less favorably compared to viewing the list. The rationale is that storytelling bypasses our ability to process information — this can hurt us when we want to highlight something's objective merits, but can benefit us when we want to exaggerate the facts. We don't have to look very far to see examples of how storytelling can be used against us; politics is probably the ripest field to see how stories that are low on facts can be irresistibly persuasive.
Being aware of the power of storytelling in your life is something of a superpower. You'll be better able to tell when somebody's trying to manipulate your perception, and you'll be better able to persuade others. You can reframe and reshape the impact of traumatic experiences in your life with storytelling. You can even make your life more meaningful. It might not be a bad idea to spend some time writing in a journal, or even just reminiscing about a particularly meaningful episode in your life.
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Scientists discover the inner workings of an effect that will lead to a new generation of devices.
- Researchers discover a method of extracting previously unavailable information from superconductors.
- The study builds on a 19th-century discovery by physicist Edward Hall.
- The research promises to lead to a new generation of semiconductor materials and devices.
Credit: Gunawan/Nature magazine
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The images and our best computer models don't agree.
A trio of intriguing galaxy clusters<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNDQzNDA0OS9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYxNTkzNzUyOH0.0IRzkzvKsmPEHV-v1dqM1JIPhgE2W-UHx0COuB0qQnA/img.jpg?width=980" id="d69be" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="2d2664d9174369e0a06540cb3a3a9079" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
The three galaxy clusters imaged for the study
Mapping dark matter<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="d904b585c806752f261e1215014691a6"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/fO0jO_a9uLA?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span><p>The assumption has been that the greater the lensing effect, the higher the concentration of dark matter.</p><p>As scientists analyzed the clusters' large-scale lensing — the massive arc and elongation visual effects produced by dark matter — they noticed areas of smaller-scale lensing within that larger distortion. The scientists interpret these as concentrations of dark matter within individual galaxies inside the clusters.</p><p>The researchers used spectrographic data from the VLT to determine the mass of these smaller lenses. <a href="https://www.oas.inaf.it/en/user/pietro.bergamini/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Pietro Bergamini</a> of the INAF-Observatory of Astrophysics and Space Science in Bologna, Italy explains, "The speed of the stars gave us an estimate of each individual galaxy's mass, including the amount of dark matter." The leader of the spectrographic aspect of the study was <a href="http://docente.unife.it/docenti-en/piero.rosati1/curriculum?set_language=en" target="_blank">Piero Rosati</a> of the Università degli Studi di Ferrara, Italy who recalls, "the data from Hubble and the VLT provided excellent synergy. We were able to associate the galaxies with each cluster and estimate their distances." </p><p>This work allowed the team to develop a thoroughly calibrated, high-resolution map of dark matter concentrations throughout the three clusters.</p>
But the models say...<p>However, when the researchers compared their map to the concentrations of dark matter computer models predicted for galaxies bearing the same general characteristics, something was <em>way</em> off. Some small-scale areas of the map had 10 times the amount of lensing — and presumably 10 times the amount of dark matter — than the model predicted.</p><p>"The results of these analyses further demonstrate how observations and numerical simulations go hand in hand," notes one team member, <a href="https://nena12276.wixsite.com/elenarasia" target="_blank">Elena Rasia</a> of the INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Trieste, Italy. Another, <a href="http://adlibitum.oats.inaf.it/borgani/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Stefano Borgani</a> of the Università degli Studi di Trieste, Italy, adds that "with advanced cosmological simulations, we can match the quality of observations analyzed in our paper, permitting detailed comparisons like never before."</p><p>"We have done a lot of testing of the data in this study," Meneghetti says, "and we are sure that this mismatch indicates that some physical ingredient is missing either from the simulations or from our understanding of the nature of dark matter." <a href="https://physics.yale.edu/people/priyamvada-natarajan" target="_blank">Priyamvada Natarajan</a> of Yale University in Connecticut agrees: "There's a feature of the real Universe that we are simply not capturing in our current theoretical models."</p><p>Given that any theory in science lasts only until a better one comes along, Natarajan views the discrepancy as an opportunity, saying, "this could signal a gap in our current understanding of the nature of dark matter and its properties, as these exquisite data have permitted us to probe the detailed distribution of dark matter on the smallest scales."</p><p>At this point, it's unclear exactly what the conflict signifies. Do these smaller areas have unexpectedly high concentrations of dark matter? Or can dark matter, under certain currently unknown conditions, produce a tenfold increase in lensing beyond what we've been expecting, breaking the assumption that more lensing means more dark matter?</p><p>Obviously, the scientific community has barely begun to understand this mystery.</p>
Scientists have found evidence of hot springs near sites where ancient hominids settled, long before the control of fire.