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Why avoiding logical fallacies is an everyday superpower
Ten of the most sandbagging, red-herring, and effective logical fallacies.
- Many an otherwise-worthwhile argument has been derailed by logical fallacies.
- Sometimes these fallacies are deliberate tricks, and sometimes just bad reasoning.
- Avoiding these traps makes disgreeing so much better.
Logical-fallacy traps are all around us, and we get caught in them all the time. They trap us during discussions — okay, arguments — and make our heads want to burst. Sometimes we get derailed while we're trying to sort out important issues, and sometimes it's simply trying to adjudicate day-to-day nonsense.
Nonetheless, getting thrown off course by one of these fallacies is like becoming ensnared in vines from which escape grows ever thornier. What a superpower it would be then, to be able to smash right though these binds — or even better, to learn how to sidestep them in the first place.
There's a chart floating around online from non-profit School of Thought, and it sums up the most pernicious logical fallacies. (You can buy the chart as a wall poster from their shop.) It's a great way to develop your debating superpowers. We thought we'd share 10 of our favorites.
1. Composition/division fallacies
This is a twofer originally courtesy of Aristotle. The Logical Place describes them this way: "The Fallacy of Composition arises when one infers that something is true of the whole from the fact that it is true of some part of the whole. Conversely, the Fallacy of Division occurs when one infers that something true for the whole must also be true of all or some of its parts."
An example of the Composition form:
- A is a teacher
- A has a mustache
- All teachers have mustaches
For the Division version, if A has no whiskers, all teachers are clean-lipped.
2. The Tu quoque fallacy
You know this one, the equivalent of, "Oh, yeah? Well, you, too." According to the site Logically Fallacious, it's defined as: "Claiming the argument is flawed by pointing out that the one making the argument is not acting consistently with the claims of the argument." What did your parents say about two wrongs?
3. The Texas sharpshooter fallacy
The validity of your argument appears to be based on evidence, but, as Your Logical Fallacy puts it, "You cherry-picked a data cluster to suit your argument, or found a pattern to fit a presumption." Nice try, though.
4. Ambiguity fallacy
Ambiguity's described on Your Logical Fallacy, thusly: "You used a double meaning or ambiguity of language to mislead or misrepresent the truth." The Fallacy Files has a great breakdown of Bill Clinton's denial of sexual congress with Monica Lewinsky, and why it was less than convincing to anyone really paying attention, even though he didn't exactly lie. The moral: Listen to what's being said by politicians and other salespeople very, very carefully.
5. Personal incredulity fallacy
According to Truly Fallacious, this one involves "Asserting because one finds something difficult to understand it can't be true." It's the raison d'être of climate-change deniers, and, yes, flat-Earthers.
6. Genetic fallacy
The Genetic fallacy is the one that causes you to discard, or accept, the validity of an argument due to its source. As far as the former goes, remember, "Even a broken clock is right twice a day." Consider the premise, not its speaker. As far as the latter goes, check out these examples from Soft Schools.
7. Middle ground fallacy
While middle ground — AKA compromise — can often be the solution to an impasse, it's not to say that it reveals some new, truer truth. In fact, it's just an agreement for both sides to live with being a little unhappy in order to move forward. Don't be bluffed out of your position by someone claiming they're meeting you halfway only in order to move you off a correct position you shouldn't abandon.
8. Anecdotal fallacy
"Everyone think this!" What this statement really means is that, in your limited personal experience, something is true. Fallacy Files has a nice way of putting it: "The Anecdotal Fallacy is committed when a recent memory, a striking anecdote, or a news story of an unusual event leads one to overestimate the probability of that type of event, especially when one has access to better evidence."
9. False cause fallacy
Your Logical Fallacy offers this: "You presumed that a real or perceived relationship between things means that one is the cause of the other." This is the old correlation-does-not-equal-causation fallacy that's so easy to fall into.
10. The fallacy fallacy
There's a mighty big difference between good, sound reasons and reason that sound good." — Burton Hillis
The perfect place to conclude this list. Remember, just because someone's argument depends on a fallacy doesn't necessarily mean they're wrong. As Fallacy Files drily warns, "Like anything else, the concept of logical fallacy can be misunderstood and misused, and can even become a source of fallacious reasoning." Keep an open mind and think about what the other person is saying — you want to glimpse the truth, or not, behind their mental and verbal parlor tricks.
"With great power comes great responsibility." This advice is not just for Spiderman. Use your new superpower wisely — other people fall for these tricks, too. Which is to say, play nice.
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Most of Stonehenge's megaliths, called sarens, came from West Woods, Wiltshire.
Discovering Stonehenge's signature<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMzUyOTYyMy9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY0MzQ2NDc3Nn0.zb-izy2gdpzY5RboUnWumoX1XqP7WgqqkfANYnMkRSA/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=0%2C726%2C0%2C-4&height=700" id="a041b" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="9872216ca30ec9e5628b8e91f32b5b6b" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
In 1958, engineers undertook the task of re-erecting a Stonehenge trilithon that fell in 1797. Three cores drilled into a sarsen disappeared soon after.
For every answer, another question<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMzUyOTYyNy9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTU5NzI5NDEzNX0.iNRlen_VApo2Hw6SPd_eiVodaG3UpEb00yD4GX_9JgU/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=0%2C164%2C0%2C1&height=700" id="e4fe1" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="157f21a6e304f7f50ebec55e2e53e505" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
A view of Stonehenge during the Summer Solstice.
(Photo: Wikimedia Commons)<p>Thanks to Nash and his team, scientists now know the source of Stonehenge's sarsens. This clue can help them solve other Stonehenge mysteries. That most of the stones were sourced from one location, the study notes, suggests that they were erected at about the same time. It also reveals the routes the Neolithic builders had to traverse with their heavy loads.</p><p>But questions remain. Why did the builders choose West Woods when the Salisbury Plain is dense with sarsen? Why were two megaliths (Stones 26 and 160) sourced elsewhere? And were the missing stones gathered from West Woods or elsewhere? </p><p>These questions only touch on the sarsens. The question that intrigues so many of the monument's visitors remains hotly debated: Who built Stonehenge and why? Was it a <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/science/2013/mar/09/archaeology-stonehenge-bones-burial-ground#:~:text=Stonehenge%20may%20have%20been%20burial%20site%20for%20Stone%20Age%20elite%2C%20say%20archaeologists,-This%20article%20is&text=Centuries%20before%20the%20first%20massive,a%20theory%20disclosed%20on%20Saturday." target="_blank">burial site for the Stone age elite</a>? <a href="https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/06/120622163722.htm" target="_blank">A monument marking British unification</a>? <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/science/2015/mar/15/circular-thinking-stonehenges-origin-is-subject-to-new-theory" target="_blank">A Druid Mecca</a>? We don't know, but as scientific tools advance, we may be able to break the prehistoric silence that has laid over Stonehenge for so long.</p>