from the world's big
Steven Pinker's 13 rules for writing better
The Harvard psychologist loves reading authors' rules for writing. Here are his own.
- Steven Pinker is many things: linguist, psychologist, optimist, Harvard professor, and author.
- When it comes to writing, he's a student and a teacher.
- Here's are his 13 rules for writing better, more simply, and more clearly.
1. Reverse-engineer what you read.
1. Reverse-engineer what you read. If it feels like good writing, what makes it good? If it’s awful, why?— Steven Pinker (@Steven Pinker)1547397620.0
2. Prose is a window onto the world.
2. Prose is a window onto the world. Let your readers see what you are seeing by using visual, concrete language.— Steven Pinker (@Steven Pinker)1547397620.0
3. Don’t go meta.
3. Don’t go meta. Minimize concepts about concepts, like “approach, assumption, concept, condition, context, framew… https://t.co/SSssjN9QmJ— Steven Pinker (@Steven Pinker)1547397621.0
4. Let verbs be verbs.
4. Let verbs be verbs. “Appear,” not “make an appearance.”— Steven Pinker (@Steven Pinker)1547397622.0
5. Beware of the Curse of Knowledge.
5. Beware of the Curse of Knowledge: when you know something, it’s hard to imagine what it’s like not to know it. M… https://t.co/eaV5GmrLqx— Steven Pinker (@Steven Pinker)1547397623.0
Interlude: Steven Pinker's take on human nature. Is it evil?
6. Omit needless words.
6. Omit needless words (Will Strunk was right about this).— Steven Pinker (@Steven Pinker)1547397623.0
7. Avoid clichés like the plague.
7. Avoid clichés like the plague (thanks, William Safire).— Steven Pinker (@Steven Pinker)1547397623.0
8. Old information at the beginning, new information at the end.
8. Old information at the beginning of the sentence, new information at the end.— Steven Pinker (@Steven Pinker)1547397624.0
9. Save the heaviest for last.
9. Save the heaviest for last: a complex phrase should go at the end of the sentence.— Steven Pinker (@Steven Pinker)1547397624.0
Interlude: Steven Pinker's take on libertarianism (at any age, it's marginal).
10. Prose must cohere.
10. Prose must cohere: readers must know how each sentence is related to the preceding one. If it’s not obvious, us… https://t.co/Go2D8Y47yx— Steven Pinker (@Steven Pinker)1547397626.0
11. Revise several times.
11. Revise several times with the single goal of improving the prose.— Steven Pinker (@Steven Pinker)1547397626.0
12. Read it aloud.
12. Read it aloud.— Steven Pinker (@Steven Pinker)1547397627.0
13. Find the best word.
13. Find the best word, which is not always the fanciest word. Consult a dictionary with usage notes, and a thesaurus.— Steven Pinker (@Steven Pinker)1547397627.0
Want to dig further into Pinker's writing style? Here's the book he wrote on the subject. Enjoy!
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Construction of the $500 billion dollar tech city-state of the future is moving ahead.
- The futuristic megacity Neom is being built in Saudi Arabia.
- The city will be fully automated, leading in health, education and quality of life.
- It will feature an artificial moon, cloud seeding, robotic gladiators and flying taxis.
The Red Sea area where Neom will be built:
Saudi Arabia Plans Futuristic City, "Neom" (Full Promotional Video)<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="c646d528d230c1bf66c75422bc4ccf6f"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/N53DzL3_BHA?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
Are we genetically inclined for superstition or just fearful of the truth?
- From secret societies to faked moon landings, one thing that humanity seems to have an endless supply of is conspiracy theories. In this compilation, physicist Michio Kaku, science communicator Bill Nye, psychologist Sarah Rose Cavanagh, skeptic Michael Shermer, and actor and playwright John Cameron Mitchell consider the nature of truth and why some groups believe the things they do.
- "I think there's a gene for superstition, a gene for hearsay, a gene for magic, a gene for magical thinking," argues Kaku. The theoretical physicist says that science goes against "natural thinking," and that the superstition gene persists because, one out of ten times, it actually worked and saved us.
- Other theories shared include the idea of cognitive dissonance, the dangerous power of fear to inhibit critical thinking, and Hollywood's romanticization of conspiracies. Because conspiracy theories are so diverse and multifaceted, combating them has not been an easy task for science.
A growing body of research suggests COVID-19 can cause serious neurological problems.
- The new study seeks to track the health of 50,000 people who have tested positive for COVID-19.
- The study aims to explore whether the disease causes cognitive impairment and other conditions.
- Recent research suggests that COVID-19 can, directly or indirectly, cause brain dysfunction, strokes, nerve damage and other neurological problems.
Brain images of a patient with acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis.
COVID-19 and the brain<p>A growing body of research reveals alarming neurological complications among COVID-19 patients. On Wednesday, for example, researchers from University College London published a <a href="https://academic.oup.com/brain/article/doi/10.1093/brain/awaa240/5868408" target="_blank">study</a> in the journal Brain that describes how some patients have suffered temporary brain dysfunction, strokes, nerve damage, and other neurological problems concurrent with COVID-19.</p><p>Some patients suffered brain inflammation as a result of a rare disease called acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, which can cause numbness, seizures, and confusion. One patient in the study even hallucinated monkeys and lions in her home.</p>
Photo by Mario Tama/Getty Images<p>A separate study published in the <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7198407/" target="_blank">Journal of Clinical Neuroscience</a> notes that some COVID-19 patients have also suffered neurological complications like impaired consciousness and acute cerebrovascular disease. The study notes that past viruses like MERS and SARS also seemed to cause neurological problems.</p><p>A troubling finding among this growing body of research is that some patients seem to suffer neurological damage even when respiratory symptoms aren't obvious. Additionally, scientists aren't sure whether damage from the disease will be permanent.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"Given that the disease has only been around for a matter of months, we might not yet know what long-term damage COVID-19 can cause," Dr. Ross Paterson, joint first author of the University College London study, said in a <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-07/ucl-iid070620.php" target="_blank">press release</a>. "Doctors needs to be aware of possible neurological effects, as early diagnosis can improve patient outcomes."</p><p>If you've been diagnosed with COVID-19 and want to enroll in the study, visit <a href="https://www.cambridgebrainsciences.com/studies/covid-brain-study" target="_blank">cambridgebrainsciences.com/studies/covid-brain-study</a>.</p>
Coronavirus layoffs are a glimpse into our automated future. We need to build better education opportunities now so Americans can find work in the economy of tomorrow.