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The lost art of rest: How to relax
In her book The Art of Rest, one researcher conducted a thorough analysis of the top 10 activities we find most restful.
Even though our bodies and minds are begging for a break, modern culture has turned rest into a sin. So how can we catch a breath?
I'll start by telling my own story. It will serve as proof that I represent one of the most severe deficits of contemporary society: I don't know how to rest. However, it also shows that each of us is the best healer of our own exhaustion and can find a way to deep rest. The path is simple to walk, but hard to enter. Especially now, when an urbanized civilization forces its amped-up pace of existence upon us, along with inflated activity norms. But first, we need to escape the rocket in which we are hurling through life.
"When was the last time you went for a holiday?"
This question took me by surprise. It was a beautiful summer afternoon, golden sunshine and light wind seeped into the room. For a long time, I watched the waving lace curtain. I counted, carefully backtracking my memories. The psychiatrist waited, watching me kindly.
"Eight years ago," I said slowly, hardly believing those words. I hadn't taken any breaks between the 29th and 37th years of my life.
"Well, perhaps it's high time for some rest, then?" he said, the question floating gently in the air, light and delicate. "The more work there is in your life, the more time you should make for rest. It may sound like a paradox, but you need to maintain the balance between those two elements."
Of course, I travelled plenty over the course of those eight years; I have been to many sunny places, usually associated with kicking back and relaxing. But every one of those trips had its purpose; I went there to see something, visit someone, write about it. And since my work is also my passion and lifestyle choice, it was easy to let the lines blur. For eight years, I failed to notice that I am never resting. The doctor did, though, and very mildly, he uttered the word burnout.
I had no idea what to do with myself. How do I go somewhere for no reason? Or maybe rather: to find peace, quiet, calm waters. And where? Where could I possibly go and have nothing to do, nothing to observe, nothing to describe?
"Go to Cornwall, it's so beautiful over there!" suggested my sister.
"How do you know, have you been there?"
"No, but I've heard."
Fair enough, Cornwall it is. The first leg of the trip was easy – I took a flight to London and spent a few fun August days in a vibrant city. I visited a bunch of galleries, bookshops, parks, went to two plays and three concerts. Then I bought a ticket to Penzance and got on a train in Paddington, feeling like a lost teddy bear riding to the most faraway place where no-one was waiting. The only point of reference I had in my head was Land's End, a literal end of the world – the southernmost strip of British soil.
After years of hyperactivity, I plunged into a rural void. Even in the peak holiday season, most of the villages, towns and fields of Cornwall remain a motionless little world of their own, where time trickles slowly, and the only thing that could possibly stir one's emotions is the weather. This little piece of land, protruding far into the Atlantic, is as exposed to the forces of nature as a ship in the sea. When the sun is shining, there is nowhere to hide from its blaze, and once a rainstorm comes, it swallows everything, wiping out colours and shapes. After two days of typical city-dweller activities – thorough area inspections, museum-trodding, visiting organic farms and sampling local cuisine – there was nothing left to do. Nothing at all – and I simply could not stop. The sudden halt of my normal impetus was a shock. I couldn't sleep; I struggled with anxiety. Only in walks did I find some relief.
On the third day, I found my way outside town and came across a married couple wearing trekking boots. I asked them where they were coming from. That's how, by a complete accident, I found out about the South West Coast Path, a legendary route running along the southwestern coast of Great Britain. And it was the trail (for the most part, it is little more than a narrow, barely visible path leading across hills, slopes, swaths of shrubbery and fields of lavender) that saved me. It gave me a rhythm, allowing me to keep on moving together with my thoughts and feelings. I could walk across two landscapes at once: the gorgeous vistas around me, and the inner terrain of my mind that I finally had to face.
For the days to come, I walked the route bit by bit, without a map, led only by curiosity about the views that might emerge from behind the next turn. Whenever I wanted to rest, I walked down to the beach, and when hungry, I climbed up to the nearest village. Once the day was nearing its end, I caught a bus and went wherever it took me, just to find a place with a roof and a bed to rent. In the morning, once again I stared at waves breaking on sharp rocks, dolphin backs glistening in the sun, horses and cows grazing on meadows, bumblebees hovering over flowers. For days, I said nothing to anyone. I just walked, absorbed the nature around me, read, ate, bathed, slept. The whole trip took barely two weeks. And yet, it remained within me like it was a months-long period of metamorphosis and deep rest. It was a turning point. I didn't understand why it affected me this way until quite recently, when during another visit to London I came across a book The Art of Rest: How to Find Respite in the Modern Age by Claudia Hammond (Canongate, 2019), on the art of finding rest in the modern world.
I did not know it back then in Cornwall, but my instinct led me towards the best and most effective way of finding deep tranquillity and leisure. Thanks to Hammond's work – to my surprise, she turned out to be one of the very few researchers focused on relaxation, so vital to all humans – there are several facts about rest we now know for sure. Relaxation is a state every one of us achieves in their own way, due to an individually regulated alchemy of performed tasks and activities that bring us peace and repose. But rest is also something universal, brought to us by simple, easily available means. Humanity, as a whole, seems to agree on what kinds of activity allow us to rest most effectively.
Answers from 134 countries
The question: "What are the activities you find most restful?" was asked by an eclectic group of scientists and experts from Durham University in the north of England, working on The Rest Test, the first global research into this topic. Claudia Hammond, a BBC health journalist of many years, was also part of the team. The research report was published in 2018; it summarized the findings from a record 18,000 responses from 134 countries. Such a large response pool enabled the team to draw reliable conclusions on what helps us rest, regardless of our origin, financial status, or age. The report listed 10 activities that give us the deepest sense of relaxation. It did not include sleep, as the researchers were only interested in activities performed consciously. In her book The Art of Rest, Hammond conducted a thorough analysis of those top 10 activities, turning to science to explain why and in what conditions those, and not other choices, help us unwind.
Before I describe the 10 activities said to be the best stress-remedies, let me tell you the two modern favourites that didn't make it. As it turns out, spending hours online and on our smartphones do not provide solid rest, and respondents described the time spent on those activities as mostly empty and wasted. We also fail to relax when socializing and talking to our friends and loved ones, probably because it requires us to perform certain roles. We should also keep in mind that The Test Rest research focused on activities that give us a feeling of being well-rested, rather than what is most enjoyable.
Let's start from the bottom. In 10th place, there was mindfulness – a practice whose name seems difficult to translate into other languages, as it combines many practices that soothe the mind and teach us being aware and present in the here and now. In the Durham University research, the idea of mindfulness included such practices as yoga, breathing exercises, and clearing the mind. When repeated regularly, those practices help unite the body and mind. Hammond analysed various research on the actual impact of mindfulness on rest and found that too often, it is proposed as a universal cure to all problems. The efficacy of mindfulness is limited, and it seems to be helpful only to few: most mindfulness class attendees give up early on. In Hammond's opinion, the greatest advantage of mindfulness is that in its basic form, it proves quite easy to incorporate into our daily life. For example, we can just sit down with our eyes closed and follow our thoughts for a moment, letting them come and go on their own accord. This one activity alone is enough to remind us that life is constantly changing and worth being accepted this way. Opposing it will just wear you out!
The modern Valium
Watching TV turned out to be the ninth most effectively relaxing activity. Despite the common belief that it's mind-numbing, mood-lowering and harmful, research quoted in The Art of Rest shows that proportions are the most important thing about achieving a state of relaxation. Therefore, too much TV does bring down one's mood, but when it's not enough, it won't make us feel rested. Data from all over the world shows TV-watching time is gradually increasing – collectively, humanity consumes 3.5 billion hours of television content each year. In the US, a 75-year-old person has spent a total of nine years of their life solely on staring at the TV. But is it really that bad? Respondents in The Rest Test said that TV-watching requires no physical effort and allows us to lose ourselves in someone else's life for a while. And this enables us to rest.
Psychologist Mihály Csíkszentmihályi is the creator of the concept of flow, as well as the author of key research on how we like to spend our free time and what gives us joy. One of his experiments showed that subjects were more relaxed when watching television than attending sports events, going to dance clubs, eating, and even doing nothing. They confirmed that television makes them feel sleepy and passive, while also improving their mood. Hammond believes that TV seems to be today's equivalent of Valium, providing escape as well as relief. It can also be a significant factor in reducing the feeling of loneliness, not just to the elderly or people who live alone. To many of us, watching TV together can be a pleasant way to wrap up our day in an atmosphere of non-committal intimacy – we sit close to each other and watch a story unfold together without the obligation of speaking or being active. We are resting. And despite the common concern, TV doesn't mean being completely passive, either. Many of us combine watching television with other activities, such as ironing. Just like with other relaxing activities, this one also requires moderation. Excessive television-watching is addictive; it can also worsen symptoms of depression. But a little bit of mental numbness, Hammond argues, can be more helpful than we used to think.
The eighth spot on the list of global relaxation is daydreaming, that is, letting our thoughts run uncontrolled. The uncontrolled meandering of thoughts is somewhat related to the concept of mindfulness. It allows our thoughts to flow in an uninhibited way without us focusing on any of them specifically. It's all about letting go. You needn't worry about your brain; an increasing amount of research proves it's never truly idle. When we seem to be thinking about nothing at all, our brains tend to become quite active. Unleashing one's thoughts is wonderfully beneficial to our creativity and releases our minds from the need to check on our daily to-do lists constantly. The trouble with daydreaming is that it's commonly associated with laziness, and the modern lifestyle does not approve of 'wasting time' in this way. Unless it happens in the bath…
A trip to the bathtub
The seventh-best method of deep relaxation is a hot bath. It seems to be viewed as the purest form of rest; respondents described it as something rejuvenating, safe, healing, private, priceless, uninterrupted. A bath is one of the best ways of unwinding, because we can allow ourselves it. Modern reality has whipped us into a fetishized state of being constantly busy and working. Hammond takes a closer look at our double-edged relationship with rest, showing that it often makes us feel guilty.
The negative approach to relaxation goes all the way to ancient times. Greek philosophers – as well as the Bible – taught us to consider idleness a sin, or a disease of the soul. Meanwhile, a bathtub remains one of the last spaces in which we allow ourselves to just be. It is also aided by the positive stereotype of personal hygiene rituals (I'm not lounging, I'm cleansing my body), and the scientifically-confirmed positive influence baths have on our health by reducing levels of the stress hormone cortisol, or by lowering our body temperature for a while after a bath, making it easier to fall asleep. However, Hammond warns, spending too much time in hot water has negative effects, adding that there is no decisive proof on the health benefits of winter swimming. Icy dippers might find this activity fun and relaxing, but science has no explanation for that!
The sixth place on the list is occupied by walks; much more dependable than polar bear plunges. The test confirmed what many of us feel instinctively and regularly practice: 38% of respondents listed walking as one of the three activities they find most relaxing. Even though walks require physical activity, they provide – just like lounging in a bath – the perfect conditions for doing nothing. When declaring "I'll go for a walk", we express the desire to be active, not lazy. Importantly, walking also improves our thinking. Many writers, from Thoreau to Solnit, said they came up with their best ideas while walking. Sitting down and thinking in a static position is more difficult, and in modern culture, it has become synonymous with idleness. Hammond describes walking as a perfect balance between nothingness and newness – we seem to be doing nothing special, and yet we return refreshed and rejuvenated.
Research done at Stanford University confirms that walks improve our creativity. Volunteers taking part in the study went for a walk and were then asked to come up with new applications for a simple object, such as a button. Those people were full of fresh ideas, unlike the other participants, who instead of walking ran on a treadmill or were pushed in wheelchairs. Walking is also a great opportunity to be together without commitment. The French philosopher Frédéric Gros describes it as "shared solitude" – during a walk, we don't even have to talk. Our steps fill the silence.
The correlation between walking as physical activity and its soothing impact on the mind is also interesting. 16% of the people surveyed said they feel more rested after physical exercise, and 8% found running or jogging relaxing. Why does this kind of effort help us rest? The latest neurological studies show that exercise, even of the most exhausting kind, causes brain activity to reach a state similar to that experienced during meditation.
It's easy to introduce walks to our daily routine – we can get off the bus one stop early, take a detour on our way home, or give up driving so that we can walk to a tube or tram stop instead. Claudia Hammond also points out that while reaching a state of relaxation requires balance, we can moderate this naturally when walking. It provides an ideal pace of existence, allowing us to absorb our surroundings, letting us think more clearly, and bringing us back to the natural way of experiencing time.
The muse of idleness
Fifth place on the list is occupied by "not doing anything in particular", which causes us to feel so much guilt that we keep coming up with various euphemisms to describe it: taking it easy, chilling, hanging out. We are afraid of idleness and just laying down, as it is associated with wrongdoing that can drag us down. A staggering 10% of us feel guilty at the very thought of any kind of rest. Where does this come from? It stems directly from our culture, which rewards those who are constantly busy and relentlessly working, giving them high social status and portraying them as more important – after all, they are needed. In such a system of values, there is no space left for being motionless, or even for taking a break. We are becoming more and more like our smartphones: never turned off, forever on standby, endlessly updating. Such a way of living has become normal not just to those working in the City of London, but also to the stallholders in Vietnam.
This vision of a 'good life' is linked directly to capitalism. In its global kingdom that is the US, only 74% of all employees enjoy the privilege of paid vacation, and it's still much shorter than the European average. And yet, doing nothing and taking time off is a matter of life and death. In her book, Hammond quotes several research studies that prove good rest extends our lifespan. Interestingly (and practically, too), even short breaks – such as micro-rests that last just a few minutes during our daily grind – are beneficial. That's already enough to help us work more productively and feel better. So get up, leave your desk and take a look through the window, make a cup of tea, or do anything that isn't work and lets you unwind a little.
For example, try listening to your favourite music, as it's the fourth most effective way of resting. The kind of music you choose doesn't matter. If you believe in the healing properties of Mozart's masterpieces and listen to them on a loop in the hope that they will make you a genius, you can give it a break and play some Rihanna if that's how you feel. As it turns out, an eclectic music taste also supports relaxation, as it helps us choose the style that corresponds best with our needs at any given time. Since everything in life is prone to constant change, it's best to have our private playlists for any occasion. Many respondents say music 'cleanses' them, and they find it most relaxing when they are alone.
Me, myself and I
"I want to be on my own" was the third most desired way of experiencing relaxation. Why do so many of us feel most rested when alone? After all, humans are social and political animals, and we owe our evolutionary success to our ability to adapt and cooperate. Even the human brain has the qualities of a highly-socialized organ. Hammond analysed various studies to conclude that the right dose of solitude provides relief from the social functions and requirements that we face in relationships and situations in which we are required to fulfil various roles and expectations. She also provides an interesting definition of solitude, as opposed to loneliness. Thanks to new technologies, we are rarely ever truly alone with no external stimuli; almost never truly free from the impression of being always watched and judged. Still, the same technologies increase our feeling of isolation and are just a simulation of genuine relationships. Again, it's all about proportions. Referring to several psychological studies, the author points out that it's not about the number of social relationships, but rather their quality. Just a handful of close relationships are enough to make us feel satisfied and, therefore, happy to experience some solitude without anxiety.
However, Hammond points out something even more interesting: we fail to notice how much time we already spend on our own anyway. On average, we spend 29% of every day alone, including commuting to work, which we can spend on daydreaming if we take public transport. It's worth evaluating the time we spend in solitude. That's the first step towards making the most of those moments.
Nature and reading
The second most relaxing activity turns out to be spending time surrounded by nature. In this case, instinct also proves to be our most important ally – we can feel that nature soothes us; it heals the mind and calms racing thoughts. Just a brief walk among the trees and looking at the surface of a lake is enough to help us wind down. Research shows that even looking at pictures of trees for a short time improves our productivity at work. Why? We don't know, and it seems to be very difficult for scientists to really put their finger on it. The most likely answer is that nature provides good conditions for introspection, allowing us to feel part of a larger order, enabling us to view ourselves in a broader existential context. Perhaps only then can we find eudaemonia – the state of flourishing and balanced fulfilment of our needs.
We have already walked, bathed and daydreamed… What could possibly give us an even deeper sense of relaxation? Which activity did people all over the globe describe as the most relaxing? The answer is reading.
Since 1928, we have known that reading is a soothing activity. That was when Edmund Jacobson, the pioneer researcher on rest, sought the activity that is best for relaxation of the mind and muscles. However, after Jacobson, scientists paid surprisingly little attention to what most of us find so obvious – the fact that there aren't many things as lovely as losing oneself in a good book and forgetting about the whole world! A staggering 58% of The Rest Test respondents said they find reading the most relaxing of all activities. Why is this result so surprising? Mainly because reading requires a lot of cognitive effort, as it engages the brain in a way that activates many complex neural pathways.
Hammond explains: "We read the letters. We form words from them. We take meaning from those words. We relate that meaning to what we've read before. We reach into our own memories. We create images in our minds. We mentally simulate the action, the sights and the sounds of the scenes. Meanwhile, we use what psychologists refer to as 'theory of mind' to inhabit the characters' minds in order to understand their motivations, to imagine their thoughts, to feel their feelings."
Sounds rather complicated, doesn't it? But it only confirms the conclusion that comes from examining the entire top-10 list: rest rarely means passivity. There is surprisingly little scientific research following the correlation between reading and our health and relaxation, but the available data confirms that reading aids falling asleep, as well as lowering our blood pressure and blood cortisol levels. One of the reasons why we rest better while reading than while watching a movie is the control we have over the content. It's up to us how we imagine the characters and events described, how fast we pace through the story and how much we engage in it. All this doesn't stand in opposition to the effect of deep engagement; by reading, we develop many skills, such as empathy, since it is an exercise in understanding other people and their behaviours.
Csíkszentmihályi, whom I mentioned earlier, found that people who read achieve a state of flow close to a trance. Interestingly, reading seems to have a similar effect to encountering nature: when reading, we manage to forget our own life and lose ourselves in someone else's experiences, but also, indirectly, we connect to our inner self and descend to some deeper level of self-contemplation. Neurological analyses of brain activity during reading show that it is neither resting nor fully concentrated. When we read, our thoughts start floating.
Research conducted at the University of Southern California suggests that when we read, our neural paths are busy looking for connection and meaning within the text that are linked to our past experiences or thoughts about the future. Therefore, while being present in the story we are reading, we maintain close contact with our inner self. We often think that resting is meant to clear the mind, but it seems that charging it with new stories and people makes us most relaxed instead. And here is some really good news: research on the connection between reading and longevity shows that regular contact with literature adds on average two more years to our lifespan.
The pandemonium of the pandemic
The conclusions of The Rest Test and Claudia Hammond's analyses could be – as the author jokingly says herself – considered obvious. "No shit, Sherlock!" we might say mockingly. After all, most of us can feel all those things science is trying so hard to prove; Hammond's book did not teach me anything I hadn't already learnt during my trip to Cornwall.
And yet, resting is not something we achieve easily, as confirmed by the Durham research. Relaxation is not a natural part of our lives and does not occur spontaneously. In our everyday reality that fizzes with tasks and commitments, resting requires some conscious effort and sensible promises to make some space for it. One of the most valuable points made in The Art of Rest is a simple truth about being an adult: it's this stage of life in which the to-do list is never going to end. No matter how many items you cross out, new ones keep on appearing. The wheel won't stop spinning. And what's the researcher's advice?
First, accept the reality of it. Second, don't be delusional. In half a year from now, your situation won't be radically different. Don't accept an invitation to another conference, don't take on that extra project. If you don't have time for it now, you won't have more time tomorrow.
The experience of the pandemic makes this conclusion even clearer, reminding us that rest is something that requires particular protection and care. According to Hammond, one of the most essential conditions of experiencing rest is the freedom in deciding how we spend our time. Many people have lost this freedom due to quarantine and the restrictions caused by the need for self-isolation and minimizing the risk of COVID-19 infections. In some extreme cases, isolation can lead to a disintegration of personality and cause the feeling of not existing at all.
But even the simple limitations that we've become used to during lockdown – the inability to go for a walk, spend a day outside, or simply be alone for a while after days on end spent with other household members – have seriously limited our options when it comes to rest. We no longer had to commute or drive kids to school, getting to stay at home all day. Many of us expected it to be more restful this way, but instead, we have become more frustrated: we lost access to the most relaxing activities during a time when we were constantly bombarded with existential dread. We feared for ourselves and our loved ones, worrying about our health and lives, about work and finances, and about losing the everyday reality we created with so much effort.
When we return to normal – or what the experts expect to be 'the new reality' – our instinct might lead us in one of two directions. We might feel infinite exhaustion and a need for proper deep rest. Or we might decide that our fear for survival is more important, and let it push us forward so that after a period of unprecedented deprivation of rest, we end up working harder than ever before in a desperate effort to make up for the lost time.
If we read Hammond's book carefully, we will know that we should choose the former. Even if we can't take time off work, we should try and make mini-breaks and add little pockets of relaxation to our overloaded days. And most of all, avoid taking on additional commitments. Let's not amp up our pace of life, wound-up as it already is.
"Have you found yourself a hobby? Something that helps you relax?" This time, my psychiatrist's kind voice meets me through my computer screen.
In the time of the pandemic, our meetings need to be kept at a safe half-distance, provided by technology. I really don't want to let him down, so I give my hopeful answer:
"Does it count if I walk the dog while listening to audiobooks?"
I wait for the pixelated shape to regain the familiar features of my doctor's face. Here it is, smiling.
"Wonderful! As long as you don't take on too much work. Have you learned it already?"
"How to refuse. It's the first step on the path towards proper rest."
Translated from the Polish by Aga Zano
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Inventions with revolutionary potential made by a mysterious aerospace engineer for the U.S. Navy come to light.
- U.S. Navy holds patents for enigmatic inventions by aerospace engineer Dr. Salvatore Pais.
- Pais came up with technology that can "engineer" reality, devising an ultrafast craft, a fusion reactor, and more.
- While mostly theoretical at this point, the inventions could transform energy, space, and military sectors.
The U.S. Navy controls patents for some futuristic and outlandish technologies, some of which, dubbed "the UFO patents," came to life recently. Of particular note are inventions by the somewhat mysterious Dr. Salvatore Cezar Pais, whose tech claims to be able to "engineer reality." His slate of highly-ambitious, borderline sci-fi designs meant for use by the U.S. government range from gravitational wave generators and compact fusion reactors to next-gen hybrid aerospace-underwater crafts with revolutionary propulsion systems, and beyond.
Of course, the existence of patents does not mean these technologies have actually been created, but there is evidence that some demonstrations of operability have been successfully carried out. As investigated and reported by The War Zone, a possible reason why some of the patents may have been taken on by the Navy is that the Chinese military may also be developing similar advanced gadgets.
Among Dr. Pais's patents are designs, approved in 2018, for an aerospace-underwater craft of incredible speed and maneuverability. This cone-shaped vehicle can potentially fly just as well anywhere it may be, whether air, water or space, without leaving any heat signatures. It can achieve this by creating a quantum vacuum around itself with a very dense polarized energy field. This vacuum would allow it to repel any molecule the craft comes in contact with, no matter the medium. Manipulating "quantum field fluctuations in the local vacuum energy state," would help reduce the craft's inertia. The polarized vacuum would dramatically decrease any elemental resistance and lead to "extreme speeds," claims the paper.
Not only that, if the vacuum-creating technology can be engineered, we'd also be able to "engineer the fabric of our reality at the most fundamental level," states the patent. This would lead to major advancements in aerospace propulsion and generating power. Not to mention other reality-changing outcomes that come to mind.
Among Pais's other patents are inventions that stem from similar thinking, outlining pieces of technology necessary to make his creations come to fruition. His paper presented in 2019, titled "Room Temperature Superconducting System for Use on a Hybrid Aerospace Undersea Craft," proposes a system that can achieve superconductivity at room temperatures. This would become "a highly disruptive technology, capable of a total paradigm change in Science and Technology," conveys Pais.
High frequency gravitational wave generator.
Credit: Dr. Salvatore Pais
Another invention devised by Pais is an electromagnetic field generator that could generate "an impenetrable defensive shield to sea and land as well as space-based military and civilian assets." This shield could protect from threats like anti-ship ballistic missiles, cruise missiles that evade radar, coronal mass ejections, military satellites, and even asteroids.
Dr. Pais's ideas center around the phenomenon he dubbed "The Pais Effect". He referred to it in his writings as the "controlled motion of electrically charged matter (from solid to plasma) via accelerated spin and/or accelerated vibration under rapid (yet smooth) acceleration-deceleration-acceleration transients." In less jargon-heavy terms, Pais claims to have figured out how to spin electromagnetic fields in order to contain a fusion reaction – an accomplishment that would lead to a tremendous change in power consumption and an abundance of energy.
According to his bio in a recently published paper on a new Plasma Compression Fusion Device, which could transform energy production, Dr. Pais is a mechanical and aerospace engineer working at the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division (NAWCAD), which is headquartered in Patuxent River, Maryland. Holding a Ph.D. from Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, Pais was a NASA Research Fellow and worked with Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems. His current Department of Defense work involves his "advanced knowledge of theory, analysis, and modern experimental and computational methods in aerodynamics, along with an understanding of air-vehicle and missile design, especially in the domain of hypersonic power plant and vehicle design." He also has expert knowledge of electrooptics, emerging quantum technologies (laser power generation in particular), high-energy electromagnetic field generation, and the "breakthrough field of room temperature superconductivity, as related to advanced field propulsion."
Suffice it to say, with such a list of research credentials that would make Nikola Tesla proud, Dr. Pais seems well-positioned to carry out groundbreaking work.
A craft using an inertial mass reduction device.
Credit: Salvatore Pais
The patents won't necessarily lead to these technologies ever seeing the light of day. The research has its share of detractors and nonbelievers among other scientists, who think the amount of energy required for the fields described by Pais and his ideas on electromagnetic propulsions are well beyond the scope of current tech and are nearly impossible. Yet investigators at The War Zone found comments from Navy officials that indicate the inventions are being looked at seriously enough, and some tests are taking place.
If you'd like to read through Pais's patents yourself, check them out here.
Laser Augmented Turbojet Propulsion System
Credit: Dr. Salvatore Pais
Our love-hate relationship with browser tabs drives all of us crazy. There is a solution.
A lot of ideas that people had about the internet in the 1990s have fallen by the wayside as technology and our usage patterns evolved. Long gone are things like GeoCities, BowieNet, and the belief that letting anybody post whatever they are thinking whenever they want is a fundamentally good idea with no societal repercussions.
While these ideas have been abandoned and the tools that made them possible often replaced by new and improved ones, not every outdated part of our internet experience is gone. A new study by a team at Carnegie Mellon makes the case that the use of tabs in a web browser is one of these outdated concepts that we would do well to get rid of.
How many tabs do you have open right now?
We didn't always have tabs. Introduced in the early 2000s, tabs are now included on all major web browsers, and most users have had access to them for a little over a decade. They've been pretty much the same since they came out, despite the ever changing nature of the internet. So, in this new study, researchers interviewed and surveyed 113 people on their use of — and feelings toward — the ubiquitous tabs.
Most people use tabs for the short-term storage of information, particularly if it's information that is needed again soon. Some keep tabs that they know they'll never get around to reading. Others used them as a sort of external memory bank. One participant described this action to the researchers:
"It's like a manifestation of everything that's on my mind right now. Or the things that should be on my mind right now... So right now, in this browser window, I have a web project that I'm working on. I don't have time to work on it right now, but I know I need to work on it. So it's sitting there reminding me that I need to work on it."
You suffer from tab overload
Unfortunately, trying to use tabs this way can cause a number of problems. A quarter of the interview subjects reported having caused a computer or browser to crash because they had too many tabs open. Others reported feeling flustered by having so many tabs open — a situation called "tab overload" — or feeling ashamed that they appeared disorganized by having so many tabs up at once. More than half of participants reported having problems like this at least two or three times a week.
However, people can become emotionally invested in the tabs. One participant explained, "[E]ven when I'm not using those tabs, I don't want to close them. Maybe it's because it took efforts [sic] to open those tabs and organize them in that way."
So, we have a tool that inefficiently saves web pages that we might visit again while simultaneously reducing our productivity, increasing our anxiety, and crashing our machines. And yet we feel oddly attached to them.
Either the system is crazy or we are.
Skeema: The anti-tab revolution
The researchers concluded that at least part of the problem is caused by tabs not being an ideal way of organizing the work we now do online. They propose a new model that better compartmentalizes tabs by task and subtask, reflects users' mental models, and helps manage the users' attention on what is important right now rather than what might be important later.
To that end, the team also created Skeema, an extension for Google Chrome, that treats tabs as tasks and offers a variety of ways to organize them. Users of an early version reported having fewer tabs and windows open at one time and were better able to manage the information they contained.
Tabs were an improvement over having multiple windows open at the same time, but they may have outlived their usefulness. While it might take a paradigm shift to fully replace the concept, the study suggests that taking a different approach to tabs might be worth trying.
And now, excuse me, while I close some of the 87 tabs I currently have open.
Seek pleasure and avoid pain. Why make it more complicated?
- The Epicureans were some of the world's first materialists and argued that there is neither God, nor gods, nor spirits, but only atoms and the physical world.
- They believed that life was about finding pleasure and avoiding pain and that both were achieved by minimizing our desires for things.
- The Epicurean Four Step Remedy is advice on how we can face the world, achieve happiness, and not worry as much as we do.
Self-help books are consistently on the best-seller lists across the world. We can't seem to get enough of happiness advice, wellness gurus, and life coaches. But, as the Book of Ecclesiastes says, there is nothing new under the sun. The Ancient Greeks were into the self-help business millennia before the likes of Dale Carnegie and Mark Manson.
Four schools of ancient Greek philosophy
From the 3rd century BCE until the birth of Jesus, Greek philosophy was locked into an ideological war. Four rival schools emerged, each proclaiming loudly that they — alone — had the secret to a happy and fulfilled life. These schools were: Stoicism, Cynicism, Skepticism, and Epicureanism. Each had their advocates and even had a kind of PR battle to get people to sign up to their side. They were trying to sell happiness.
Epicurus's guide to living is noticeably different from a lot of modern self-help books in just how little day-to-day advice it gives.
Many of us are familiar with Stoicism, a topic I covered recently, because it forms the foundation of cognitive behavioral therapy. Skepticism and Cynicism have become watered down or warped variations of their original forms. (I will cover these in future articles.) Today, we focus on the most underappreciated of these schools, the Epicureans. In their philosophy, we can find a surprisingly modern and easy-to-follow "Four Part Remedy" to life.
Epicureans: The first atheists
The Epicureans were some of history's first materialists. They believed that the world was made up only of atoms (and void), and that everything is simply a particular composition of these atoms. There were no gods, spirits, or souls (or, at most, they're irrelevant to the world as we encounter it). They thought that there was no afterlife or immortality to be had, either. Death is just a relocation of atoms. This atheism and materialism was what the Christian Church would later come to despise, and after centuries of being villainized by priests, popes, and church doctrine, the Epicureans fell out of fashion.
In the atomistic, worldly philosophy of the Epicureans, all there is to life is to get as much pleasure as you can and avoid pain. This isn't to become some rampant hedonist, staggering from opium dens to brothels, but concerns the higher pleasures of the mind.
Epicurus, himself, believed that pleasure was defined as the satisfying of a desire, such as when we drink a glass of water when we're really thirsty. But, he also argued that desires themselves were painful since they, by definition, meant longing and anguish. Thirst is a desire, and we don't like being thirsty. True contentment, then, could not come from creating and indulging pointless wants but must instead come from minimizing desire altogether. What would be the point of setting ourselves new targets? These are just new desires that we must make efforts to satisfy. Thus, minimizing pain meant minimizing desires, and the bare minimum desires were those required to live.
The Four Part Remedy
Given that Epicureans were determined to maximize pleasure and minimize pain, they developed a series of rituals and routines designed to help. One of the best known (not least because we've lost so much written by the Epicureans) was the so-called "Four Part Remedy." These were four principles they believed we ought to accept so that we might find solace and be rid of existential and spiritual pain:
1. Don't fear God. Remember, everything is just atoms. You won't go to hell, and you won't go to heaven. The "afterlife" will be nothingness, in just the same way as when you had no awareness whatsoever of the dinosaurs or Cleopatra. There was simply nothing before you existed, and death is a great expanse of the same timeless, painless void.
2. Don't worry about death. This is a natural corollary of Step 1. With no body, there is no pain. In death, we lose all of our desires and, along with them, suffering and discontent. It's striking how similar in tone this sounds to a lot of Eastern, especially Buddhist, philosophy at the time.
3. What is good is easy to get. Pleasure comes in satisfying desires, specifically the basic, biological desires required to keep us alive. Anything more complicated than this, or harder to achieve, just creates pain. There's water to be drunk, food to be eaten, and beds to sleep in. That's all you need.
4. What is terrible is easy to endure. Even if it is difficult to satisfy the basic necessities, remember that pain is short-lived. We're rarely hungry for long, and sicknesses most often will be cured easily enough (and this was written 2300 years before antibiotics). All other pains often can be mitigated by pleasures to be had. If basic biological necessities can't be met, then you die — but we already established there is nothing to fear from death.
Epicurus's guide to living is noticeably different from a lot of modern self-help books in just how little day-to-day advice it gives. It doesn't tell us "the five things you need to do before breakfast" or "visit these ten places, and you'll never be sad again." Just like it's rival school of Stoicism, Epicureanism is all about a psychological shift of some kind.
Namely, that psychological shift is about recognizing that life doesn't need to be as complicated as we make it. At the end of the day, we're just animals with basic needs. We have the tools necessary to satisfy our desires, but when we don't, we have huge reservoirs of strength and resilience capable of enduring it all. Failing that, we still have nothing to fear because there is nothing to fear about death. When we're alive, death is nowhere near; when we're dead, we won't care.
Practical, modern, and straightforward, Epicurus offers a valuable insight to life. It's existential comfort for the materialists and atheists. It's happiness in four lines.