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Knowing when a task is going to end makes us better at it
Our desire to engage in more interesting activities may have something to do with it.
This also goes for non-professional deadlines — trying to get in shape by the time you run a specific race, for example, can be a lot more motivating than a more vague and nebulous desire to get fit.
But why is this the case? Maayan Katzir and colleagues at Tel Aviv University have investigated the phenomenon in a new paper, recently published in Cognition — and they suggest it may be down to how we conserve and use effort.
In an initial experiment, 64 undergraduate students were asked to perform a complex task, completing a series of trials in which they had to switch between four different activities: two Stroop tasks, in which participants were asked to name colours or read words, and two spatial tasks, in which they had to indicate the direction of arrows. In each trial, they also had to ignore distracting stimuli. Participants were told that those scoring in the top 25% on accuracy would receive a monetary reward.
Participants completed 10 blocks of 240 trials, making a total of 2400 trials. Importantly, one group was told that the experiment was split into blocks, and were given information about how many blocks of the total they had completed as they went along, while the other was not. Neither group received feedback on how well they were performing. After the third, sixth and ninth blocks, participants were also asked how tired, bored and energetic they felt, the answers to which were used to calculate a fatigue score.
Participants in the feedback condition — those who were aware of how far they had progressed through the experiment — had a higher level of performance, as measured by their speed and accuracy; this was particularly pronounced towards the end of the experiment, suggesting that knowing when a task is going to end does indeed make it easier to complete. Participants receiving feedback also spent less time taking breaks towards the end than their non-feedback peers, though they didn't report feeling any less fatigued.
A second experiment replicated the design of the first — except, this time, there were even more blocks. Participants were asked to complete twelve blocks of 240 trials, bringing the total to 2880. And as in the first experiment, feedback on progress had a positive impact on performance. Participants in the no feedback condition also reported feeling more fatigued — but only towards the end of the experiment. This group also spent more time on breaks than those aware of how many blocks they had left.
So why do we perform better when we know a task is going to end? Our desire to engage in more interesting activities may have something to do with it. If we're aware of the fact a tedious task is nearly finished, we also know that leisure activities are within our reach: remaining engaged in our task and taking fewer breaks means that those more tantalising opportunities are closer to hand.
It may also be to do with how much effort we allocate to particular activities, the team suggests. If we have no idea how much longer we're going to be engaging in a particular task, we're unlikely to put all of our energy into it; if we know the end is near, we feel more able to try our hardest without fear of running out of energy.
This could relate to how we conceptualise willpower, too: another recent study found that those who believe they possess a limited and finite amount of energy are less likely to motivate themselves to get to bed on time. So people who believe that our willpower is a limited resource may be particularly likely to try and conserve effort when they don't know how much longer a task will last.
Those in the feedback condition did indeed perform better than their counterparts — but that doesn't mean their performances were as high as they could be. It would be interesting to look at the timing of progress feedback — could introducing progress feedback only towards the end of a task push performance even higher?
What is clear, however, is that knowledge of how a task is progressing can have a significant impact both on how much effort you expend on it and how well you perform. So if you really want to get that boring bit of work out of the way? You may well benefit from setting yourself a deadline.
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The team caught a glimpse of a process that takes 18,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 years.
- In Italy, a team of scientists is using a highly sophisticated detector to hunt for dark matter.
- The team observed an ultra-rare particle interaction that reveals the half-life of a xenon-124 atom to be 18 sextillion years.
- The half-life of a process is how long it takes for half of the radioactive nuclei present in a sample to decay.
Gender and sexual minority populations are experiencing rising anxiety and depression rates during the pandemic.
- Anxiety and depression rates are spiking in the LGBTQ+ community, and especially in individuals who hadn't struggled with those issues in the past.
- Overall, depression increased by an average PHQ-9 score of 1.21 and anxiety increased by an average GAD-7 score of 3.11.
- The researchers recommended that health care providers check in with LGBTQ+ patients about stress and screen for mood and anxiety disorders—even among those with no prior history of anxiety or depression.
Study findings<p>For the study, <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11606-020-05970-4" target="_blank">published in the Journal of General Internal Medicine</a><em>, </em>Flentje and her team evaluated survey responses from nearly 2,300 individuals who identified as being in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) community. Most of the participants were white, while nearly 19 percent identified as a racial or ethnic minority. Multiple genders were represented with cisgender women (27.2 percent) and men (24.6 percent) making up a majority of the participants. Sixty-three percent had been assigned female at birth. For the most part, participants identified their sexual orientations as queer (40.3 percent), gay (36.5 percent), and bisexual (30.3 percent).</p><p>The JGIM study participants were recruited from the 18,000-participant <a href="https://pridestudy.org/" target="_blank">PRIDE Study</a> (Population Research in Identity and Disparities for Equality), which is the first large-scale, long-term national study focusing on American adults who identify as LGBTQ+. It conducts annual questionnaires to understand factors related to health and disease in this population. </p><p>Participants filled out an annual questionnaire (starting in June 2019) and a COVID-19 impact survey this past spring. Flentje noted that on an individual level, some people may not have experienced a big change in anxiety or depression levels, but for others there was. Overall, depression increased by a <a href="https://patient.info/doctor/patient-health-questionnaire-phq-9" target="_blank">PHQ-9 score</a> of 1.21, putting it at 8.31 on average. Anxiety went up by a <a href="https://www.mdcalc.com/gad-7-general-anxiety-disorder-7" target="_blank">GAD-7</a> score of 3.11 to an average of 8.89. Interestingly, the average PHQ-9 scores for those who screened positive for depression at the first 2019 survey decreased by 1.08. Those who screened negative for depression saw their PHQ-9 scores increase by 2.17 on average. As for anxiety, researchers detected no GAD-7 change among the study participants who screened positive for anxiety in the first survey, but did see an overall increase of 3.93 among those who had initially been evaluated as negative for the disorder. </p>
Risks among gender and sexual minorities<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="fc3fd1ae68b77bbbf58a6995638d6d65"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/EnUqDjCqg0A?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span><p>The LGBTQ+ community is a vulnerable population to mental health concerns because of their fear of stigmatization and previous discriminatory experiences.</p> <p>Previous research by the Human Rights Campaign has found "that LGBTQ Americans are more likely than the <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/general+population/" target="_blank">general population</a> to live in poverty and lack access to adequate medical care, paid <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/medical+leave/" target="_blank">medical leave</a>, and basic necessities during the pandemic," said researcher Tari Hanneman, director of the health and aging program at the campaign.</p> <p>"Therefore, it is not surprising to see this increase in anxiety and depression among this population," Hanneman said in the release. "This study highlights the need for <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/health+care+professionals/" target="_blank">health care professionals</a> to support, affirm and provide <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/critical+care/" target="_blank">critical care</a> for the LGBTQ community to manage and maintain their mental health, as well as their physical health, during this pandemic."</p>
What should health care providers do?<p>The authors of the study recommend that health care providers check in with LGBTQ+ patients about stress and screen for mood and anxiety disorders in members of that community—even among those with no prior history of anxiety or depression.</p><p>As cases of COVID-19 continue to mount, the sustained social distancing, potential isolation, economic precariousness, and personal illness, grief, and loss are bound to have increased and varied impacts on mental health. Effective treatments may include individual therapy and medications as well as more large-scale coronavirus support programs like peer-led groups and mindfulness practices. </p><p>"It will be important to find out what happens over time and to identify who is most at risk, so we can be sure to roll out public health interventions to support the mental health of our communities in the best and most effective ways," said Flentje.</p>
What we know about black holes is both fascinating and scary.
- When it comes to black holes, science simultaneously knows so much and so little, which is why they are so fascinating. Focusing on what we do know, this group of astronomers, educators, and physicists share some of the most incredible facts about the powerful and mysterious objects.
- A black hole is so massive that light (and anything else it swallows) can't escape, says Bill Nye. You can't see a black hole, theoretical physicists Michio Kaku and Christophe Galfard explain, because it is too dark. What you can see, however, is the distortion of light around it caused by its extreme gravity.
- Explaining one unsettling concept from astrophysics called spaghettification, astronomer Michelle Thaller says that "If you got close to a black hole there would be tides over your body that small that would rip you apart into basically a strand of spaghetti that would fall down the black hole."