Why Jerusalem Was Supposed to Be an International City
A 1947 U.N. resolution called for Jerusalem to be an international city.
President Trump’s announcement that the American embassy in Israel will move to Jerusalem and the ancient city will be recognized as the country’s capital was met with much global outrage and riots in the Middle East. Many in the international community fear the move will set back the ever-fragile peace process between the Israelis and Palestinians. The Palestinians claim East Jerusalem as their capital, making the city a very contentious point in a tinderbox of a region.
Trump’s decision breaks with precedent established by U.S. Presidents in the last 22 years. Every six months a waiver was signed delaying the implementation of the 1995 Jerusalem Embassy Act which would have moved the embassy from Tel Aviv, effectively settling the issue of which city is the true capital.
Historically, when the United Nations divided up the British Mandatory Palestine in 1948, two nations were supposed to emerge - Israel and an Arab-Palestinian state. Jerusalem, a 5,000-year-old city that is central to three of the world’s major religions and had a mixed population was supposed to become an international city. This was supposed to last until the city’s status could be properly negotiated between the Israelis and the Palestinians.
The U.N. General Assembly resolution 181 from November 29th, 1947, outlined that vision of Jerusalem. It was to be managed by the United Nations Trusteeship Council, which would appoint the city’s Governor and draft a 10-year statute. Legislature was to be elected by universal adult suffrage, creating a representative mix. This arrangement would be reviewed by the Trusteeship Council in ten year’s time, followed by a citizen referendum to decide the city’s future.
US President Donald Trump holds up a signed proclamation after he delivered a statement on Jerusalem from the Diplomatic Reception Room of the White House in Washington, DC on December 6, 2017. (Photo credit: SAUL LOEB/AFP/Getty Images)
The text of the resolution referred to the situation in “Palestine” in language that would be quite appropriate even today, calling any conflagration there “likely to impair the general welfare and friendly relations among nations”.
Here’s how the resolution explained why the city needed a special status, saying its objective was to:
“To protect and to preserve the unique spiritual and religious interests located in the city of the three great monotheistic faiths throughout the world, Christian, Jewish and Moslem; to this end to ensure that order and peace, and especially religious peace, reign in Jerusalem,” stated the resolution.
Another objective included fostering “co-operation among all the inhabitants of the city in their own interests as well as in order to encourage and support the peaceful development of the mutual relations between the two Palestinian peoples throughout the Holy Land; to promote the security, well-being and any constructive measures of development of the residents, having regard to the special circumstances and customs of the various peoples and communities.”
Israeli forces scuffle with Palestinians at Damascus Gate in Jerusalem's Old City on December 8, 2017. Palestinians clashed with Israeli security forces after calls for a 'day of rage' as US President Donald Trump's declaration of Jerusalem as Israel's capital sent shockwaves through the region for a second day. (Photo credit: THOMAS COEX/AFP/Getty Images)
The war that broke out upon Israel’s formation prevented this turn of events, with Jerusalem split between Israel in the western part and Jordan in the eastern sector. Israel took over East Jerusalem as result of the Six Day War in 1967 and declared Jerusalem its capital in 1980. The international community has generally not recognized that as fact, however, looking for a final determination of status as part of a peace settlement. This position was reaffirmed by the December 8th meeting of the U.N. Security Council.
Can Jerusalem be considered an international city today, in the current political climate?
Here’s a telling recent video of what Israelis think about that question, with most very skeptical of the idea, citing security concerns and fears that an international government will not have the interest of the Jewish Israelis at heart.
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It's one of the most consistent patterns in the unviverse. What causes it?
- Spinning discs are everywhere – just look at our solar system, the rings of Saturn, and all the spiral galaxies in the universe.
- Spinning discs are the result of two things: The force of gravity and a phenomenon in physics called the conservation of angular momentum.
- Gravity brings matter together; the closer the matter gets, the more it accelerates – much like an ice skater who spins faster and faster the closer their arms get to their body. Then, this spinning cloud collapses due to up and down and diagonal collisions that cancel each other out until the only motion they have in common is the spin – and voila: A flat disc.
It turns out, that tattoo ink can travel throughout your body and settle in lymph nodes.
In the slightly macabre experiment to find out where tattoo ink travels to in the body, French and German researchers recently used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence in four "inked" human cadavers — as well as one without. The results of their 2017 study? Some of the tattoo ink apparently settled in lymph nodes.
Image from the study.
As the authors explain in the study — they hail from Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, and the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment — it would have been unethical to test this on live animals since those creatures would not be able to give permission to be tattooed.
Because of the prevalence of tattoos these days, the researchers wanted to find out if the ink could be harmful in some way.
"The increasing prevalence of tattoos provoked safety concerns with respect to particle distribution and effects inside the human body," they write.
It works like this: Since lymph nodes filter lymph, which is the fluid that carries white blood cells throughout the body in an effort to fight infections that are encountered, that is where some of the ink particles collect.
Image by authors of the study.
Titanium dioxide appears to be the thing that travels. It's a white tattoo ink pigment that's mixed with other colors all the time to control shades.
The study's authors will keep working on this in the meantime.
“In future experiments we will also look into the pigment and heavy metal burden of other, more distant internal organs and tissues in order to track any possible bio-distribution of tattoo ink ingredients throughout the body. The outcome of these investigations not only will be helpful in the assessment of the health risks associated with tattooing but also in the judgment of other exposures such as, e.g., the entrance of TiO2 nanoparticles present in cosmetics at the site of damaged skin."
Do you have a magnetic compass in your head?
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