David Goggins
Former Navy Seal
Career Development
Bryan Cranston
Critical Thinking
Liv Boeree
International Poker Champion
Emotional Intelligence
Amaryllis Fox
Former CIA Clandestine Operative
Chris Hadfield
Retired Canadian Astronaut & Author
from the world's big
Start Learning

Scientists Propose the Existence of a Giant New Space Object

A new study by planetary scientists proposes a giant new space object which could have formed the Earth and the moon.

A molten Planet. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech.

Earth as we know it today was a much different place a few billion years ago. In fact, chances are, it was a giant donut-shaped mess of spinning hot vaporized rock. The researchers from Harvard University and University of California, Davis think that Earth was in the shape of an entirely new planetary object they’ve dubbed “synestia”. 

The study, published in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, was carried out by the planetary scientist Sarah Stewart, a professor at Harvard, and Simon Lock, a graduate student from UC Davis, with support from NASA and the U.S. Department of Energy.  

The focus of the work by Stewart and Lock was on planet formation from a sort of interplanetary pinball, when giant rotating objects smashed into each other in the young Universe. These violent cataclysms produced new partially-melted and vaporized space bodies, which would eventually cool down and become the mostly spherical planets we have today. 

“We looked at the statistics of giant impacts, and we found that they can form a completely new structure,” said Stewart.

This figure shows to scale a rocky planet, a molten disk/ring structure, and a synestia all with the same mass (about one Earth mass). Credit: Harvard University.

How exactly would synestias form? The researchers found through modeling that when spinning planetary bodies barrel towards each other at high temperatures and with high angular momenta, their crash would actually create a totally new object of mostly vaporized rock, with the same angular momentum. The outer layers of the vaporized planets would be in orbit around the rest of the new body. 

The scientists described it as an indented disk that looks like a red blood cell or a donut with the center filled in. The reason they called the planetary body they proposed “synestia” comes from “syn” which means “together” in Greek and “Hestia” - the Greek goddess of the home, hearth and architecture. 

Once formed, the synestia, like a molten cocoon, would start cooling off, condensing into a solid object in a few hundred years - a pretty short time in cosmic terms. Unless they are formed by the collision of gas giants like Jupiter - such synestias would survive in their forms much longer.

The idea of synestias could also explain the formation of moons. While they have not been observed directly, synestias could be present in other solar systems and could be detected in the future. 

Neom, Saudi Arabia's $500 billion megacity, reaches its next phase

Construction of the $500 billion dollar tech city-state of the future is moving ahead.

Credit: Neom
Technology & Innovation
  • The futuristic megacity Neom is being built in Saudi Arabia.
  • The city will be fully automated, leading in health, education and quality of life.
  • It will feature an artificial moon, cloud seeding, robotic gladiators and flying taxis.
Keep reading Show less

Why do people believe in conspiracy theories?

Are we genetically inclined for superstition or just fearful of the truth?

  • From secret societies to faked moon landings, one thing that humanity seems to have an endless supply of is conspiracy theories. In this compilation, physicist Michio Kaku, science communicator Bill Nye, psychologist Sarah Rose Cavanagh, skeptic Michael Shermer, and actor and playwright John Cameron Mitchell consider the nature of truth and why some groups believe the things they do.
  • "I think there's a gene for superstition, a gene for hearsay, a gene for magic, a gene for magical thinking," argues Kaku. The theoretical physicist says that science goes against "natural thinking," and that the superstition gene persists because, one out of ten times, it actually worked and saved us.
  • Other theories shared include the idea of cognitive dissonance, the dangerous power of fear to inhibit critical thinking, and Hollywood's romanticization of conspiracies. Because conspiracy theories are so diverse and multifaceted, combating them has not been an easy task for science.

COVID-19 brain study to explore long-term effects of the virus

A growing body of research suggests COVID-19 can cause serious neurological problems.

Brain images of a patient with acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis.

  • The new study seeks to track the health of 50,000 people who have tested positive for COVID-19.
  • The study aims to explore whether the disease causes cognitive impairment and other conditions.
  • Recent research suggests that COVID-19 can, directly or indirectly, cause brain dysfunction, strokes, nerve damage and other neurological problems.
Keep reading Show less
Sponsored by Charles Koch Foundation

Better reskilling can future-proof jobs in the age of automation. Enter SkillUp's new coalition.

Coronavirus layoffs are a glimpse into our automated future. We need to build better education opportunities now so Americans can find work in the economy of tomorrow.

Scroll down to load more…