from the world's big
NASA Discovers Why Saturn's Moon Enceladus May Be the Best Place to Look for Alien Life
NASA scientists discover what two places in the solar system might have favorable conditions for alien life.
NASA scientists announced its Cassini spacecraft found evidence that the ocean on Enceladus, one of Saturn’s 62 moons, may contain all the ingredients necessary for the emergence of life.
Cassini flew through plumes of gas bursting out from under the ice covering the oceans and detected a clear presence of molecular hydrogen. This might indicate the existence of hydrothermal vents on the moon’s ocean floor. Such vents would be similar to Earth’s hydrothermal vents where some scientists believe life on our planet originated.
In the new findings, described the journal Science, scientists consider the possibility of a chemical reaction called methanogenesis taking place in the moon’s underwater vents. This reaction has been shown to be crucial to the development of microbial life by providing an energy source for the microbes.
The researchers cannot at this point conclusively state if methanogenesis is indeed taking place under Enceladus’s ice. It is also possible that this moon may be too young to have undergone the life-creating process.
“Although we can’t detect life, we’ve found that there’s a food source there for it. It would be like a candy store for microbes,” said the study’s lead author Hunter Waite of the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio.
Thomas Zurbuchen, associate administrator for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington, was also optimistic about the scope of Cassini’s current achievement.
"This is the closest we've come, so far, to identifying a place with some of the ingredients needed for a habitable environment," stated Zurbuchen.
Since 2004, the Cassini spacecraft provided no shortage of discoveries. As its head of imaging science Carolyn Porco explained, Cassini conducted over a 100 more “close flyby maneuvers” than have been done so far in the entire planetary program.
It has given us an unprecedented understanding of Saturn, with stunning new images, insights into its rings, atmosphere and moons.
In 2005, the spacecraft landed the Huygens probe on Titan, Saturn’s largest moon, a historic first for landing human machines in the outer solar system. The probe discovered a wealth of information, including an underground super-salty ocean. The Cassini-Huygens mission was carried out in cooperation between NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency.
Here’s a film made by compiling imaging data from Cassini and the probe’s instruments as it descended towards Titan:
Cassini also came amazingly close to Jupiter, providing us with the best photos we have of the gas giant.
Composite photo of Jupiter, comprised of images taken by Cassini on December 29, 2000. Credit: NASA.
The spacecraft will be decommissioned on September 15, 2017 by being plunged to burn in Saturn’s atmosphere. The reason for just a drastic demise lies in the fear that Cassini will soon run out of fuel and crash into one of Saturn’s moons, the ones we now think may contain life. It’s safer for it to burn up on entry than possibly contaminate the moons.
On its way down, the spacecraft will transmit more data and images. These will include new maps of Saturn’s magnetic and gravity fields, and details on the composition of the planet’s rings.
"It’s inspiring, adventurous and romantic — a fitting end to this thrilling story of discovery," wrote NASA.
Watch this beautiful new film from NASA on Cassini’s final journey:
Notably, another NASA team just published findings on a different ocean world that might have some form of life. Their paper on observations from the Hubble Space Telescope program showed new evidence of water vapor plumes found on Jupiter’s moon Europa. In fact, they think they spotted a huge 62-mile-high plume over Europa’s equator, in the same place a plume candidate was spotted in 2014.
These warm plumes are thought to be potential hosts for life. Considering that Europa is billions of years older than Enceladus, the chances for life to have emerged there could actually be greater.
Europa. Credit: NASA
What would it be like to experience the 4th dimension?
Physicists have understood at least theoretically, that there may be higher dimensions, besides our normal three. The first clue came in 1905 when Einstein developed his theory of special relativity. Of course, by dimensions we’re talking about length, width, and height. Generally speaking, when we talk about a fourth dimension, it’s considered space-time. But here, physicists mean a spatial dimension beyond the normal three, not a parallel universe, as such dimensions are mistaken for in popular sci-fi shows.
If machines develop consciousness, or if we manage to give it to them, the human-robot dynamic will forever be different.
- Does AI—and, more specifically, conscious AI—deserve moral rights? In this thought exploration, evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins, ethics and tech professor Joanna Bryson, philosopher and cognitive scientist Susan Schneider, physicist Max Tegmark, philosopher Peter Singer, and bioethicist Glenn Cohen all weigh in on the question of AI rights.
- Given the grave tragedy of slavery throughout human history, philosophers and technologists must answer this question ahead of technological development to avoid humanity creating a slave class of conscious beings.
- One potential safeguard against that? Regulation. Once we define the context in which AI requires rights, the simplest solution may be to not build that thing.
Duke University researchers might have solved a half-century old problem.
- Duke University researchers created a hydrogel that appears to be as strong and flexible as human cartilage.
- The blend of three polymers provides enough flexibility and durability to mimic the knee.
- The next step is to test this hydrogel in sheep; human use can take at least three years.
Duke researchers have developed the first gel-based synthetic cartilage with the strength of the real thing. A quarter-sized disc of the material can withstand the weight of a 100-pound kettlebell without tearing or losing its shape.
Photo: Feichen Yang.<p>That's the word from a team in the Department of Chemistry and Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science at Duke University. Their <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/adfm.202003451" target="_blank">new paper</a>, published in the journal,<em> Advanced Functional Materials</em>, details this exciting evolution of this frustrating joint.<br></p><p>Researchers have sought materials strong and versatile enough to repair a knee since at least the seventies. This new hydrogel, comprised of three polymers, might be it. When two of the polymers are stretched, a third keeps the entire structure intact. When pulled 100,000 times, the cartilage held up as well as materials used in bone implants. The team also rubbed the hydrogel against natural cartilage a million times and found it to be as wear-resistant as the real thing. </p><p>The hydrogel has the appearance of Jell-O and is comprised of 60 percent water. Co-author, Feichen Yang, <a href="https://today.duke.edu/2020/06/lab-first-cartilage-mimicking-gel-strong-enough-knees" target="_blank">says</a> this network of polymers is particularly durable: "Only this combination of all three components is both flexible and stiff and therefore strong." </p><p> As with any new material, a lot of testing must be conducted. They don't foresee this hydrogel being implanted into human bodies for at least three years. The next step is to test it out in sheep. </p><p>Still, this is an exciting step forward in the rehabilitation of one of our trickiest joints. Given the potential reward, the wait is worth it. </p><p><span></span>--</p><p><em>Stay in touch with Derek on <a href="http://www.twitter.com/derekberes" target="_blank">Twitter</a>, <a href="https://www.facebook.com/DerekBeresdotcom" target="_blank">Facebook</a> and <a href="https://derekberes.substack.com/" target="_blank">Substack</a>. His next book is</em> "<em>Hero's Dose: The Case For Psychedelics in Ritual and Therapy."</em></p>
An algorithm may allow doctors to assess PTSD candidates for early intervention after traumatic ER visits.