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Alien Megastructure Debunked - Astronomers Finally Explain the Weirdest Star in the Universe
Scientists come up with an explanation for the strange dimming of Tabby's star and it doesn't involve aliens.
Among the most recent promises of extraterrestrial contact, the so-called “alien megastructure” has been one of the most exciting. It’s a star that inexplicably dims and brightens, prompting the Penn State astronomer Jason Wright to famously theorize that the explanation might be that it’s not a star at all but a swarm of alien energy-collecting spacecrafts in a Dyson sphere-like formation. But a new study puts a damper on the conspiracy, with scientists now thinking the fluctuations in light are causes by cosmic dust that passes in front of the star.
In 2014, citizen scientists participating in the Planet Hunters project were sifting through data gathered by the Kepler space telescope and discovered the unusual properties of the star KIC 8462852, which is about 50% bigger than our Sun and is located more than 1,000 light years away. The star later became known as "Tabby’s Star" in honor of the person who did a first proper study of it in 2015 - Louisiana State University astronomer Tabetha Boyajian. What was strange about the star? It dimmed up to 20% at times, raising speculation that something big was passing in front of it at irregular intervals.
The weirdness of the star’s behavior was a catalyst for a crowdfunding campaign on Kickstarter that resulted in $100,000 in donations from 1,700 people who wanted to fund further research. As a result of this public support, Boyajian was able to buy more ground-based telescope time to observe and collect a trove of new data, which point to dust being behind the star’s light effects.
LSU Astronomer Tabetha Boyajian (center) and her students and research staff. (Left to right) Robert Parks, undergraduate student Rory Bentley, Assistant Professor Tabetha Boyajian, PhD candidate Tyler Ellis, undergrad Katie Nugent, Professor Geoff Clayton and graduate student Emily Safron.
The reason scientists think that dust may be the culprit is because the dimming is not completely opaque, as if something is filtering the light. An opaque object would block out both red and blue light in the same way, but it appears the blue light is blocked much more than red when the star dims.
“Dust is most likely the reason why the star’s light appears to dim and brighten,” Boyajian said. “The new data shows that different colors of light are being blocked at different intensities. Therefore, whatever is passing between us and the star is not opaque, as would be expected from a planet or alien megastructure.”
By observing the star during the period from March 2016 to December 2017, the scientists saw four episodes of dipping starlight. All the updates and findings were constantly shared with the backers via the project’s website “Where’s the Flux?”
Boyajian reiterated the importance of enthusiastic amateur scientists in discovering the star in the first place and then helping fund additional findings.
“If it wasn’t for people with an unbiased look on our universe, this unusual star would have been overlooked,” Boyajian said, adding “I am so appreciative of all of the people who have contributed to this in the past year – the citizen scientists and professional astronomers. It’s quite humbling to have all of these people contributing in various ways to help figure it out.”
Check out Tabetha Boyajian’s TED Talk about the Star:
"You dream about these kinds of moments when you're a kid," said lead paleontologist David Schmidt.
- The triceratops skull was first discovered in 2019, but was excavated over the summer of 2020.
- It was discovered in the South Dakota Badlands, an area where the Triceratops roamed some 66 million years ago.
- Studying dinosaurs helps scientists better understand the evolution of all life on Earth.
Credit: David Schmidt / Westminster College<p style="margin-left: 20px;">"We had to be really careful," Schmidt told St. Louis Public Radio. "We couldn't disturb anything at all, because at that point, it was under law enforcement investigation. They were telling us, 'Don't even make footprints,' and I was thinking, 'How are we supposed to do that?'"</p><p>Another difficulty was the mammoth size of the skull: about 7 feet long and more than 3,000 pounds. (For context, the largest triceratops skull ever unearthed was about <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02724634.2010.483632" target="_blank">8.2 feet long</a>.) The skull of Schmidt's dinosaur was likely a <em>Triceratops prorsus, </em>one of two species of triceratops that roamed what's now North America about 66 million years ago.</p>
Credit: David Schmidt / Westminster College<p>The triceratops was an herbivore, but it was also a favorite meal of the T<em>yrannosaurus rex</em>. That probably explains why the Dakotas contain many scattered triceratops bone fragments, and, less commonly, complete bones and skulls. In summer 2019, for example, a separate team on a dig in North Dakota made <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/26/science/triceratops-skull-65-million-years-old.html" target="_blank">headlines</a> after unearthing a complete triceratops skull that measured five feet in length.</p><p>Michael Kjelland, a biology professor who participated in that excavation, said digging up the dinosaur was like completing a "multi-piece, 3-D jigsaw puzzle" that required "engineering that rivaled SpaceX," he jokingly told the <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/26/science/triceratops-skull-65-million-years-old.html" target="_blank">New York Times</a>.</p>
Morrison Formation in Colorado
James St. John via Flickr
|Credit: Nobu Tamura/Wikimedia Commons|
The world's 10 most affected countries are spending up to 59% of their GDP on the effects of violence.
- Conflict and violence cost the world more than $14 trillion a year.
- That's the equivalent of $5 a day for every person on the planet.
- Research shows that peace brings prosperity, lower inflation and more jobs.
- Just a 2% reduction in conflict would free up as much money as the global aid budget.
- Report urges governments to improve peacefulness, especially amid COVID-19.
The lush biodiversity of South America's rainforests is rooted in one of the most cataclysmic events that ever struck Earth.
- One especially mysterious thing about the asteroid impact, which killed the dinosaurs, is how it transformed Earth's tropical rainforests.
- A recent study analyzed ancient fossils collected in modern-day Colombia to determine how tropical rainforests changed after the bolide impact.
- The results highlight how nature is able to recover from cataclysmic events, though it may take millions of years.