Once a week.
Subscribe to our weekly newsletter.
10 quotes on scientific issues from 2018 political candidates
Science Debate asks 2018 candidates to discuss their views on 10 vital scientific policy issues.
Science Debate, a nonpartisan organization which seeks to get candidates, elected officials and the public to discuss vital science policy issues, has released some answers to its 10 Science and Technology Questions for 2018. The mission of Science Debate, as stated by its Executive Director Sheril Kirshenbaum in Scientific American, is to prepare politicians “ to meet the 21st centuries greatest challenges on day one. “ Science Debate believes that “democracy works best when the people are well informed about candidates’ positions,” wrote Kirschenbaum.
The questions range between topics, from space, oceans, education, cyber security to mental health, climate change and energy.
How are the candidates faring so far? While answers are still coming in, here are some highlights up to this point:
1. Joseph Kopser, Congressional candidate (D) in Texas’s 21st district, thinks that science has been a great boon to humanity.
"Every facet of quality of human life has been improved through scientific inquiry and technological advances,” said Kopser. To devalue the concept of objective reality and to demean or obstruct scientific inquiry… is a certain path to slamming the brakes on human progress."
2. Elizabeth Moro, Congressional candidate (D) in Pennsylvania’s 7th district, equates scientific advancement with boosting the economy and jobs -
"Building an economy of innovation must include support for science and technology,” said Moro. “Developments in healthcare, biotechnology, robotics, cyber security, energy research, artificial intelligence, information technology and advances in manufacturing, all add jobs and strengthen our economy.”
3. James F. Henry, Congressional candidate in Florida’s 11th district, believes that humans are behind climate change, saying this “should not be a debate”. He adds that even if there are some natural forces at work as well, we need to enact “common sense policies” to protect the environment.
“It may very well be true that there is a natural ebb and flow to the level of warmth of our planet, but just because such changes occur naturally does not mean that humanity, by its mere presence, cannot impact it as well,” said Henry. “We need common sense public policies designed to minimize the damage our existence causes on the world around us, and to mitigate the effects for which we are responsible. This is to the benefit of everyone.”
4. Jeffrey Payne, Gubernatorial candidate (D) from Texas thinks that politicians should not be telling scientists how to do their job simply because of their beliefs.
”Politicians have no business trying to control scientific inquiry simply because the outcome might disagree with their beliefs,” said Payne. “Scientists should be free to pursue and report their findings without fear of reprisal by politicians."
5. Chris Richardson, who is running as a Congressional Candidate from the Green Party for California’s 7th district, gave a pretty thorough answer about why we should colonize the moon, saying we should definitely do so before Mars. He imagines moon colonizers would turn its lava tubes into dwellings.
“Going to Mars before settling the moon is foolhardy,” said Richardson. “Everything going to Mars will have to be lifted out of the earth’s gravity well. By settling the moon, we can build mining and transport on the surface of the moon in its shallow gravity well and the lack of an atmosphere works in our favor. Materials can be launched from the surface of the moon with nothing more than a solar driven catapult. Raw ore and manufactured good can be launched off the surface with ease. There is never a cloudy day on the moon and solar panels work very well in a vacuum. The shallow gravity well and lack of atmosphere means that we can launch from the moon with a mass driver, an electric catapult. Fine tuning and meteor deflection can be done from the surface of the moon.”
6. Mike DeCillis, a Congressional candidate (D) in New York’s 11th district, is a public school teacher who advocates for STEM education:
“As a public school teacher, I teach STEM in my classroom, and recognize the importance of good, sequential STEM programs in school,” explained DeCillis. “We can ensure that students receive good STEM education by ensuring we hire, and retain qualified teachers; make sure states are implementing a sequential STEM program from kindergarten through high school that demonstrates vocational links to the material; and by providing funding for labs and equipment. We should also ensure that these programs are funded universally-that all school districts, regardless of location or socio-economic condition, meet minimum STEM standards, to give all public school students the access and opportunity to learn, and apply STEM principles.”
7. Paul Tonko, who is running for re-election to Congress as a Democrat in New York’s 20th district, addressed the question of how he could forest a culture “that respects scientific evidence and protects scientists” by referring to his efforts to do so through the legislature.
“The continued denial of climate change and other science-backed findings by those in charge of policy that affects the lives of arguably everyone on the planet is alarming to say the least, “ said Tonko. “That’s why introduced the Scientific Integrity Act this Congress. The bill would establish a standard for scientific integrity policies across the federal government, empowering science watchdogs at each relevant agency to maintain a firewall between scientific findings and political or special interest meddling.
8. Tom Taylor, running for Congress in Utah’s 4th district as a Democrat, advocates for strong encryption as the first necessary barrier in a fight against cyber attacks.
“Protecting our privacy and our data will grow increasingly important in the coming years,” said Taylor. “This starts with employing strong encryption into the technologies we use. We should demand end-to-end encryption of the private companies that offer services on the Internet. So-called “backdoors” to encrypted information make us all less secure by providing an entryway to our data that can be exploited for nefarious means. Finally, we should embrace open source software which allows for code to be continually vetted by the community and leads to the plugging of security risks much quicker.”
9. Mike Clark, running for Congress as a Democrat in Texas’s 31st district, has roots in agriculture and wants to encourage locally sourced food.
“Farming is becoming cool again!” said Clark. “I am encouraged that more millennials are starting up farm businesses. Let’s also encourage locally sourced food and make it easier for consumers to access. It’s good for our local economy and good for our health. This is where Congress needs to update our agricultural policies for a sustainable 21st century farming era. It is no longer the 1930’s! My ranching and farming family members would have never grown or raised anything that they would not have consumed themselves. The same can be said for our local farmers. If we live and work in Williamson and Bell County of Texas, then there’s no reason why we can’t easily enjoy the same great foods grown here as well.”
10. Richard L. Watkins (D), running for Congress in North Carolina’s 4th district, has a PhD in Microbiology and Immunology with a specialty in Virology. He responded to a question on his mental health policies by stating unequivocally that “healthcare is a right” and that mental health should be covered under universal healthcare.
“Mental health IS health and thus will be covered under universal healthcare,” said Watkins. “ Healthcare is a right, and I fight for the rights of Americans. I want to work to end our failed war on drugs and redirect those funds ($1 trillion over the course of 40 years) to our poorly funded mental health care infrastructure."
Millions of good, hardworking Americans are living, thriving and often suffering with mental illness, thus making its heavy stigmatization an American tragedy. As a member of Congress, I will support the passing of bills that protect the rights of those with mental illness as well as fight for a better-educated public, so that as a society we can help make support more accessible.”
For more answers, check out Science Debate.
Evolution doesn't clean up after itself very well.
- An evolutionary biologist got people swapping ideas about our lingering vestigia.
- Basically, this is the stuff that served some evolutionary purpose at some point, but now is kind of, well, extra.
- Here are the six traits that inaugurated the fun.
The plica semilunaris<img class="rm-lazyloadable-image rm-shortcode" type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8xOTA5NjgwMS9vcmlnaW4ucG5nIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY3NDg5NTg1NX0.kdBYMvaEzvCiJjcLEPgnjII_KVtT9RMEwJFuXB68D8Q/img.png?width=980" id="59914" width="429" height="350" data-rm-shortcode-id="b11e4be64c5e1f58bf4417d8548bedc7" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
The human eye in alarming detail. Image source: Henry Gray / Wikimedia commons<p>At the inner corner of our eyes, closest to the nasal ridge, is that little pink thing, which is probably what most of us call it, called the caruncula. Next to it is the plica semilunairs, and it's what's left of a third eyelid that used to — ready for this? — blink horizontally. It's supposed to have offered protection for our eyes, and some birds, reptiles, and fish have such a thing.</p>
Palmaris longus<img class="rm-lazyloadable-image rm-shortcode" type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8xOTA5NjgwNy9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYzMzQ1NjUwMn0.dVor41tO_NeLkGY9Tx46SwqhSVaA8HZQmQAp532xLxA/img.jpg?width=980" id="879be" width="1920" height="2560" data-rm-shortcode-id="4089a32ea9fbb1a0281db14332583ccd" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
Palmaris longus muscle. Image source: Wikimedia commons<p> We don't have much need these days, at least most of us, to navigate from tree branch to tree branch. Still, about 86 percent of us still have the wrist muscle that used to help us do it. To see if you have it, place the back of you hand on a flat surface and touch your thumb to your pinkie. If you have a muscle that becomes visible in your wrist, that's the palmaris longus. If you don't, consider yourself more evolved (just joking).</p>
Darwin's tubercle<img class="rm-lazyloadable-image rm-shortcode" type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8xOTA5NjgxMi9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY0ODUyNjA1MX0.8RuU-OSRf92wQpaPPJtvFreOVvicEwn39_jnbegiUOk/img.jpg?width=980" id="687a0" width="819" height="1072" data-rm-shortcode-id="ff5edf0a698e0681d11efde1d7872958" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
Darwin's tubercle. Image source: Wikimedia commons<p> Yes, maybe the shell of you ear does feel like a dried apricot. Maybe not. But there's a ridge in that swirly structure that's a muscle which allowed us, at one point, to move our ears in the direction of interesting sounds. These days, we just turn our heads, but there it is.</p>
Goosebumps<img class="rm-lazyloadable-image rm-shortcode" type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8xOTA5NzMxNC9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYyNzEyNTc2Nn0.aVMa5fsKgiabW5vkr7BOvm2pmNKbLJF_50bwvd4aRo4/img.jpg?width=980" id="d8420" width="1440" height="960" data-rm-shortcode-id="8827e55511c8c3aed8c36d21b6541dbd" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
Goosebumps. Photo credit: Tyler Olson via Shutterstock<p>It's not entirely clear what purpose made goosebumps worth retaining evolutionarily, but there are two circumstances in which they appear: fear and cold. For fear, they may have been a way of making body hair stand up so we'd appear larger to predators, much the way a cat's tail puffs up — numerous creatures exaggerate their size when threatened. In the cold, they may have trapped additional heat for warmth.</p>
Tailbone<img class="rm-lazyloadable-image rm-shortcode" type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8xOTA5NzMxNi9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY3MzQwMjc3N30.nBGAfc_O9sgyK_lOUo_MHzP1vK-9kJpohLlj9ax1P8s/img.jpg?width=980" id="9a2f6" width="1440" height="1440" data-rm-shortcode-id="4fe28368d2ed6a91a4c928d4254cc02a" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
Image source: Decade3d-anatomy online via Shutterstock<p>Way back, we had tails that probably helped us balance upright, and was useful moving through trees. We still have the stump of one when we're embryos, from 4–6 weeks, and then the body mostly dissolves it during Weeks 6–8. What's left is the coccyx.</p>
The palmar grasp reflex<img class="rm-lazyloadable-image rm-shortcode" type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8xOTA5NzMyMC9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYzNjY0MDY5NX0.OSwReKLmNZkbAS12-AvRaxgCM7zyukjQUaG4vmhxTtM/img.jpg?width=980" id="8804c" width="1440" height="960" data-rm-shortcode-id="67542ee1c5a85807b0a7e63399e44575" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
Palmar reflex activated! Photo credit: Raul Luna on Flickr<p> You've probably seen how non-human primate babies grab onto their parents' hands to be carried around. We used to do this, too. So still, if you touch your finger to a baby's palm, or if you touch the sole of their foot, the palmar grasp reflex will cause the hand or foot to try and close around your finger.</p>
Other people's suggestions<p>Amir's followers dove right in, offering both cool and questionable additions to her list. </p>
Fangs?<blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-conversation="none" data-lang="en"><p lang="en" dir="ltr">Lower mouth plate behind your teeth. Some have protruding bone under the skin which is a throw back to large fangs. Almost like an upsidedown Sabre Tooth.</p>— neil crud (@neilcrud66) <a href="https://twitter.com/neilcrud66/status/1085606005000601600?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">January 16, 2019</a></blockquote> <script async src="https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script>
Hiccups<blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-conversation="none" data-lang="en"><p lang="en" dir="ltr">Sure: <a href="https://t.co/DjMZB1XidG">https://t.co/DjMZB1XidG</a></p>— Stephen Roughley (@SteBobRoughley) <a href="https://twitter.com/SteBobRoughley/status/1085529239556968448?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">January 16, 2019</a></blockquote> <script async src="https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script>
Hypnic jerk as you fall asleep<blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-conversation="none" data-lang="en"><p lang="en" dir="ltr">What about when you “jump” just as you’re drifting off to sleep, I heard that was a reflex to prevent falling from heights.</p>— Bann face (@thebanns) <a href="https://twitter.com/thebanns/status/1085554171879788545?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">January 16, 2019</a></blockquote> <script async src="https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script> <p> This thing, often called the "alpha jerk" as you drop into alpha sleep, is properly called the hypnic jerk,. It may actually be a carryover from our arboreal days. The <a href="https://www.livescience.com/39225-why-people-twitch-falling-asleep.html" target="_blank" data-vivaldi-spatnav-clickable="1">hypothesis</a> is that you suddenly jerk awake to avoid falling out of your tree.</p>
Nails screeching on a blackboard response?<blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-conversation="none" data-lang="en"><p lang="en" dir="ltr">Everyone hate the sound of fingernails on a blackboard. It's _speculated_ that this is a vestigial wiring in our head, because the sound is similar to the shrill warning call of a chimp. <a href="https://t.co/ReyZBy6XNN">https://t.co/ReyZBy6XNN</a></p>— Pet Rock (@eclogiter) <a href="https://twitter.com/eclogiter/status/1085587006258888706?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">January 16, 2019</a></blockquote> <script async src="https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script>
Ear hair<blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-conversation="none" data-lang="en"><p lang="en" dir="ltr">Ok what is Hair in the ears for? I think cuz as we get older it filters out the BS.</p>— Sarah21 (@mimix3) <a href="https://twitter.com/mimix3/status/1085684393593561088?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">January 16, 2019</a></blockquote> <script async src="https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script>
Nervous laughter<blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-lang="en"><p lang="en" dir="ltr">You may be onto something. Tooth-bearing with the jaw clenched is generally recognized as a signal of submission or non-threatening in primates. Involuntary smiling or laughing in tense situations might have signaled that you weren’t a threat.</p>— Jager Tusk (@JagerTusk) <a href="https://twitter.com/JagerTusk/status/1085316201104912384?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">January 15, 2019</a></blockquote> <script async src="https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script>
Um, yipes.<blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-conversation="none" data-lang="en"><p lang="en" dir="ltr">Sometimes it feels like my big toe should be on the side of my foot, was that ever a thing?</p>— B033? K@($ (@whimbrel17) <a href="https://twitter.com/whimbrel17/status/1085559016011563009?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">January 16, 2019</a></blockquote> <script async src="https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script>
Research has shown how important empathy is to relationships, but there are limits to its power.
- Empathy is a useful tool that allows humans (and other species) to connect and form mutually beneficial bonds, but knowing how and when to be empathic is just as important as having empathy.
- Filmmaker Danfung Dennis, Bill Nye, and actor Alan Alda discuss the science of empathy and the ways that the ability can be cultivated and practiced to affect meaningful change, both on a personal and community level.
- But empathy is not a cure all. Paul Bloom explains the psychological differences between empathy and compassion, and how the former can "get in the way" of some of life's crucial relationships.
Ultimately, this is a fight between a giant reptile and a giant primate.
The 2021 film “Godzilla vs. Kong" pits the two most iconic movie monsters of all time against each other. And fans are now picking sides.