Did Facebook Just Finally Kill Off Hoax News?
Yesterday Facebook updated the News Feed to attempt to prevent the spread of hoax news stories. What will the fallout look like?
Yesterday Facebook quietly announced that it is updating the News Feed in order to show fewer hoax stories — a subject that has become a somewhat regular theme on this blog, partially due to Facebook's ever growing capacity to propel false science news into millions of people's news feeds. Now, if you hide an item from your news feed you will have the option to report it as a false news story:
If lots of people report the story as false, the story will begin to show up less in other people's news feeds and when it does show up it will be flagged as potentially containing false information:
According to Facebook, early tests indicate that the update is unlikely to affect genuine satire - which I've previously defended against a similar Facebook update which attempted to label posts containing satire. If the update leaves a bad taste in your mouth, you are right to have concerns about censorship — there is certainly potential for abuse. There is however a strong case for the update — hoax news stories have a tendency to massively outperform articles debunking hoaxes. This is a continual cause of frustration to me, only yesterday I debunked the outlandish claim that transplant patients take on their donors' personalities - the Facebook shares for my article remain in double digits, while the article I'm debunking has ten thousand shares and continues to be shared three years after publication. Last week I debunked the false claim that half of all children will be autistic by 2025, my piece has been shared just over a thousand times — a drop in the ocean compared to the hundred thousand shares each of the two articles it debunks have acquired.
I'm hoping Facebook's new update will allow me to finally stop being distracted by the continual stream of misleading viral science news stories — which believe it or not I really do find excruciatingly boring — and return my attention to what really gets me excited — genuinely interesting scientific research. Another good argument for this update is that debunking hoax news stories as I do, can actually be counterproductive. A growing body of research shows that when you debunk a false claim using evidence you can in fact leave believers of the false claim more likely to believe the claim than if you did nothing at all, unless you are very careful. If there is a good way to halt the spread of the misinformation at source, this option may be far superior to the cat and mouse game of scrambling to debunk the information after the event. I sincerely hope appropriate safeguards have been put in place so that views that are simply controversial don't get caught in the crossfire. It sounds like Facebook is indeed taking this responsibility seriously and acting to ensure posts that are flagged as hoaxes aren't merely unpopular by looking for indicators that might give away bona fide hoaxes:
"People often share these hoaxes and later decide to delete their original posts after they realize they have been tricked. These types of posts also tend to receive lots of comments from friends letting people know this is a hoax, and comments containing links to hoax-busting websites. In fact, our testing found people are two times more likely to delete these types of posts after receiving such a comment from a friend."
Footnote: Recently some Facebook pages have been hit by a scam that fooled page owners into informing their followers that they were being shut down by Facebook after their pages had been supposedly reported for abuse. It later emerged that this threat was in fact the result of a hoax itself, so watch out - this particular hoax is only going to become more virulent now that its narrative has a plausible basis in reality.
Image Credit: Shutterstock, Facebook
What can 3D printing do for medicine? The "sky is the limit," says Northwell Health researcher Dr. Todd Goldstein.
- Medical professionals are currently using 3D printers to create prosthetics and patient-specific organ models that doctors can use to prepare for surgery.
- Eventually, scientists hope to print patient-specific organs that can be transplanted safely into the human body.
- Northwell Health, New York State's largest health care provider, is pioneering 3D printing in medicine in three key ways.
Can dirt help us fight off stress? Groundbreaking new research shows how.
- New research identifies a bacterium that helps block anxiety.
- Scientists say this can lead to drugs for first responders and soldiers, preventing PTSD and other mental issues.
- The finding builds on the hygiene hypothesis, first proposed in 1989.
Are modern societies trying too hard to be clean, at the detriment to public health? Scientists discovered that a microorganism living in dirt can actually be good for us, potentially helping the body to fight off stress. Harnessing its powers can lead to a "stress vaccine".
Researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder found that the fatty 10(Z)-hexadecenoic acid from the soil-residing bacterium Mycobacterium vaccae aids immune cells in blocking pathways that increase inflammation and the ability to combat stress.
The study's senior author and Integrative Physiology Professor Christopher Lowry described this fat as "one of the main ingredients" in the "special sauce" that causes the beneficial effects of the bacterium.
The finding goes hand in hand with the "hygiene hypothesis," initially proposed in 1989 by the British scientist David Strachan. He maintained that our generally sterile modern world prevents children from being exposed to certain microorganisms, resulting in compromised immune systems and greater incidences of asthma and allergies.
Contemporary research fine-tuned the hypothesis, finding that not interacting with so-called "old friends" or helpful microbes in the soil and the environment, rather than the ones that cause illnesses, is what's detrimental. In particular, our mental health could be at stake.
"The idea is that as humans have moved away from farms and an agricultural or hunter-gatherer existence into cities, we have lost contact with organisms that served to regulate our immune system and suppress inappropriate inflammation," explained Lowry. "That has put us at higher risk for inflammatory disease and stress-related psychiatric disorders."
University of Colorado Boulder
This is not the first study on the subject from Lowry, who published previous work showing the connection between being exposed to healthy bacteria and mental health. He found that being raised with animals and dust in a rural environment helps children develop more stress-proof immune systems. Such kids were also likely to be less at risk for mental illnesses than people living in the city without pets.
Lowry's other work also pointed out that the soil-based bacterium Mycobacterium vaccae acts like an antidepressant when injected into rodents. It alters their behavior and has lasting anti-inflammatory effects on the brain, according to the press release from the University of Colorado Boulder. Prolonged inflammation can lead to such stress-related disorders as PTSD.
The new study from Lowry and his team identified why that worked by pinpointing the specific fatty acid responsible. They showed that when the 10(Z)-hexadecenoic acid gets into cells, it works like a lock, attaching itself to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR). This allows it to block a number of key pathways responsible for inflammation. Pre-treating the cells with the acid (or lipid) made them withstand inflammation better.
Lowry thinks this understanding can lead to creating a "stress vaccine" that can be given to people in high-stress jobs, like first responders or soldiers. The vaccine can prevent the psychological effects of stress.
What's more, this friendly bacterium is not the only potentially helpful organism we can find in soil.
"This is just one strain of one species of one type of bacterium that is found in the soil but there are millions of other strains in soils," said Lowry. "We are just beginning to see the tip of the iceberg in terms of identifying the mechanisms through which they have evolved to keep us healthy. It should inspire awe in all of us."
Check out the study published in the journal Psychopharmacology.
We were gaining three IQ points per decade for many, many years. Now, that's going backward. Could this explain some of our choices lately?
There's a new study out of Norway that indicates our—well, technically, their—IQs are shrinking, to the tune of about seven IQ points per generation.
An ordained Lama in a Tibetan Buddhist lineage, Lama Rod grew up a queer, black male within the black Christian church in the American south. Navigating all of these intersecting, evolving identities has led him to a life's work based on compassion for self and others.
- "What I'm interested in is deep, systematic change. What I understand now is that real change doesn't happen until change on the inside begins to happen."
- "Masculinity is not inherently toxic. Patriarchy is toxic. We have to let that energy go so we can stop forcing other people to do emotional labor for us."
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