One Man Helped Connect 60,000 People in Nepal to the Internet. How Did He Do It?
Making Internet available where there once was none.
Two-thirds of the world still aren't connected to the Internet. Mahabir Pun, a teacher in Nepal, once lived in one of those places. He had to hike for two days from his town of Nangi just to get to the town of Pokhara to check his email. He made this trek every month for six years — it got pretty tiring after a while, so he decided to make a change.
Pun started by contacting the BBC in 2001 to see if they could help his town get connected. After some emails back and forth with engineers, they came up with a solution: a wireless dish to receive an Internet signal from Pokhara. Clemens Purner produced an inspiring film about the journey, showing what a difference an internet connection has made to this town.
The success of this project has changed Nangi's prospects in how it practices medicine, does business, and educates the younger members of its community. It has allowed growth within the country, and a future for younger generations that may have merely left Nepal for a job in another country. It's a way for these towns to nurture talent within their own communities.
But Pun didn't stop at his own remote village; in 2002 he started the Nepal Wireless Networking Project, which has helped connect over 40 villages to the Internet. This project has earned Pun several awards, including being inducted into the Internet Hall of Fame in 2014.
What the video doesn't mention is how Pun managed to connect some of these villages during a period of political unrest, which led the government in Nepal to ban the import and use of wireless technologies. "The rebels were very suspicious about our network, so we had to actually smuggle all the wireless equipment from America and Europe and build the network illegally," Pun told the BBC.
On a larger scale, big companies like Google and Facebook have been working on wireless innovations to get hard-to-reach areas online. Google recently announced its balloon Internet-delivery system to help connect the 17,000 islands that make up Indonesia's archipelago. Facebook, on the other hand, has built a drone to drop Internet. But these solutions pale in comparison to Elon Musk's proposed fleet of Internet-providing satellites.
Natalie has been writing professionally for about 6 years. After graduating from Ithaca College with a degree in Feature Writing, she snagged a job at PCMag.com where she had the opportunity to review all the latest consumer gadgets. Since then she has become a writer for hire, freelancing for various websites. In her spare time, you may find her riding her motorcycle, reading YA novels, hiking, or playing video games. Follow her on Twitter: @nat_schumaker
Photo Credit: Clemens Purner
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It's one of the most consistent patterns in the unviverse. What causes it?
- Spinning discs are everywhere – just look at our solar system, the rings of Saturn, and all the spiral galaxies in the universe.
- Spinning discs are the result of two things: The force of gravity and a phenomenon in physics called the conservation of angular momentum.
- Gravity brings matter together; the closer the matter gets, the more it accelerates – much like an ice skater who spins faster and faster the closer their arms get to their body. Then, this spinning cloud collapses due to up and down and diagonal collisions that cancel each other out until the only motion they have in common is the spin – and voila: A flat disc.
It turns out, that tattoo ink can travel throughout your body and settle in lymph nodes.
In the slightly macabre experiment to find out where tattoo ink travels to in the body, French and German researchers recently used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence in four "inked" human cadavers — as well as one without. The results of their 2017 study? Some of the tattoo ink apparently settled in lymph nodes.
Image from the study.
As the authors explain in the study — they hail from Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, and the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment — it would have been unethical to test this on live animals since those creatures would not be able to give permission to be tattooed.
Because of the prevalence of tattoos these days, the researchers wanted to find out if the ink could be harmful in some way.
"The increasing prevalence of tattoos provoked safety concerns with respect to particle distribution and effects inside the human body," they write.
It works like this: Since lymph nodes filter lymph, which is the fluid that carries white blood cells throughout the body in an effort to fight infections that are encountered, that is where some of the ink particles collect.
Image by authors of the study.
Titanium dioxide appears to be the thing that travels. It's a white tattoo ink pigment that's mixed with other colors all the time to control shades.
The study's authors will keep working on this in the meantime.
“In future experiments we will also look into the pigment and heavy metal burden of other, more distant internal organs and tissues in order to track any possible bio-distribution of tattoo ink ingredients throughout the body. The outcome of these investigations not only will be helpful in the assessment of the health risks associated with tattooing but also in the judgment of other exposures such as, e.g., the entrance of TiO2 nanoparticles present in cosmetics at the site of damaged skin."
Do you have a magnetic compass in your head?
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