Is this why time speeds up as we age?
We take fewer mental pictures per second.
- Recent memories run in our brains like sped-up old movies.
- In childhood, we capture images in our memory much more quickly.
- The complexities of grownup neural pathways are no match for the direct routes of young brains.
Mechanical engineer Adrian Bejan of Duke University has an interesting theory regarding the strange phenomenon by which time seems to speed up as we age. It's not the only theory, mind you, but an interesting one. In his just-published paper, "Why the Days Seem Shorter as We Get Older," he links the phenomenon to the idea that visual images and the manner in which we process them are the language in which we store and retrieve memories.
Considering it an issue of physics, he suggests that we more rapidly capture and remember visual data when we're young and that this sets our personal "mind time" playback rate. Since it takes longer to capture images and memory when we're older, for a number of reasons, the same length of clock time results in fewer images. When we play our back memories at our habitual mind-time rate, they seem sped up to us, much like how old movies appear (the reason why they appear so will be explained shortly). Hence, the clock time they encompass seems to have gone by faster than older memories.
"The human mind senses time changing when the perceived images change. Days seemed to last longer in your youth because the young mind receives more images during one day than the same mind in old age."
To understand Bejan's concept, it helps to understand the old-movie phenomenon. Obviously, the sense of motion in films is produced by rapidly flashing a sequence of changing images before our eyes that causes our brains to see a cohesive moving event. In the early days of cinema, movie cameras captured images at 16 frames per second.
Since The Jazz Singer in 1927 — in order to accommodate sound — we've filmed and played back movies at 24 frames per second. This means that when we play a second of an old 16 fps film, it goes by in just two-thirds of a second, making it seems like everyone in those days moved more quickly than we do now, or that their time was sped-up. This is the essential conceit behind Bejan's hypothesis.
In this excerpt from Peter Jackson's WWI movie "They Shall Not Grow Old," the playback speed changes from 24 fps to the original 16 fps at the same moment the black-and-white contrast is corrected, and everyone is revealed to be moving at a normal speed. Image source: Imperial War Museums
According to Bejan's paper, "Time represents perceived changes in stimuli (observed facts), such as visual images. The human mind perceives reality (nature, physics) through images that occur as visual inputs reach the cortex."
Clock time is mutually agreed-upon and measurable: All clocks agree on its passage, barring mechanical irregularities. Mind time is more subjective, though, and, "The time that you perceive is not the same as the time perceived by another." Bejan says this is caused by the way we interpret time looking back on memories recent and distant. Our playback rate is constant but fewer images are recorded in memory by older people, producing the old-movie effect.
Processing memory images more slowly as we age
The paper notes that the average adult makes three to five rapid eye movements — or "saccades" — each second, resting in intervals of 200–300 milliseconds in-between. These rest stops are called "fixations." If fixations go on for too long, the visual image blurs, its perception fades away in about 10 seconds, and it's thus less likely to be captured in memory. Because of this, and because one can rarely take in the entire field of vision without moving one's eyes, saccade reaction time is critical to gathering images to store in memory.
In infants, the fixation periods are shorter, and thus the saccades more frequent, allowing the discernment and capture of more images.
As for older people, Bejan cites a study that found "peak [saccade] velocities were significantly reduced in the elderly." In the study, the entire visual system lagged, and "saccadic accuracy was significantly decreased." There are a couple of reasons for this. First, the more complicated neural pathways that have evolved over the course of a lifetime slow down the trip from the eyes to the cortex — children's pathways are still fairly simple, making the journey much more direct and thus shorter. Second, fatigue — used here as a broad term encompassing "impairment, or loss, of efficiency and skill" — lengthens the fixations so they don't stick and reduces the frequency of saccades.
Why do you think time speeds up?
In addition to Bejan's hypothesis, one can also think of other possible reasons that time speeds up in adults as they age:
- A change from the flitting-from-object-to-object attention of childhood to the more concentrated attention required for adult tasks produces fewer visually distinct images worthy of capture.
- Adult responsibilities keep adults busier, and thus the days, weeks, and months fly by more quickly. All of us can remember being bored as children, a sensation that for most of us is a thing of the past.
- A heightening awareness of brevity of life.
It would be interesting to learn if people in retirement continue to experience the speeding up of time.
- This Is Why Time Seems To Speed Up As You Get Older | IFLScience ›
- Why Does Time Seem to Speed Up with Age? - Scientific American ›
- Why our sense of time speeds up as we age — and how to slow it ... ›
What can 3D printing do for medicine? The "sky is the limit," says Northwell Health researcher Dr. Todd Goldstein.
- Medical professionals are currently using 3D printers to create prosthetics and patient-specific organ models that doctors can use to prepare for surgery.
- Eventually, scientists hope to print patient-specific organs that can be transplanted safely into the human body.
- Northwell Health, New York State's largest health care provider, is pioneering 3D printing in medicine in three key ways.
Great ideas in philosophy often come in dense packages. Then there is where the work of Marcus Aurelius.
- Meditations is a collection of the philosophical ideas of the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius.
- Written as a series of notes to himself, the book is much more readable than the dry philosophy most people are used to.
- The advice he gave to himself 2,000 years ago is increasingly applicable in our hectic, stressed-out lives.
Can dirt help us fight off stress? Groundbreaking new research shows how.
- New research identifies a bacterium that helps block anxiety.
- Scientists say this can lead to drugs for first responders and soldiers, preventing PTSD and other mental issues.
- The finding builds on the hygiene hypothesis, first proposed in 1989.
Are modern societies trying too hard to be clean, at the detriment to public health? Scientists discovered that a microorganism living in dirt can actually be good for us, potentially helping the body to fight off stress. Harnessing its powers can lead to a "stress vaccine".
Researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder found that the fatty 10(Z)-hexadecenoic acid from the soil-residing bacterium Mycobacterium vaccae aids immune cells in blocking pathways that increase inflammation and the ability to combat stress.
The study's senior author and Integrative Physiology Professor Christopher Lowry described this fat as "one of the main ingredients" in the "special sauce" that causes the beneficial effects of the bacterium.
The finding goes hand in hand with the "hygiene hypothesis," initially proposed in 1989 by the British scientist David Strachan. He maintained that our generally sterile modern world prevents children from being exposed to certain microorganisms, resulting in compromised immune systems and greater incidences of asthma and allergies.
Contemporary research fine-tuned the hypothesis, finding that not interacting with so-called "old friends" or helpful microbes in the soil and the environment, rather than the ones that cause illnesses, is what's detrimental. In particular, our mental health could be at stake.
"The idea is that as humans have moved away from farms and an agricultural or hunter-gatherer existence into cities, we have lost contact with organisms that served to regulate our immune system and suppress inappropriate inflammation," explained Lowry. "That has put us at higher risk for inflammatory disease and stress-related psychiatric disorders."
University of Colorado Boulder
This is not the first study on the subject from Lowry, who published previous work showing the connection between being exposed to healthy bacteria and mental health. He found that being raised with animals and dust in a rural environment helps children develop more stress-proof immune systems. Such kids were also likely to be less at risk for mental illnesses than people living in the city without pets.
Lowry's other work also pointed out that the soil-based bacterium Mycobacterium vaccae acts like an antidepressant when injected into rodents. It alters their behavior and has lasting anti-inflammatory effects on the brain, according to the press release from the University of Colorado Boulder. Prolonged inflammation can lead to such stress-related disorders as PTSD.
The new study from Lowry and his team identified why that worked by pinpointing the specific fatty acid responsible. They showed that when the 10(Z)-hexadecenoic acid gets into cells, it works like a lock, attaching itself to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR). This allows it to block a number of key pathways responsible for inflammation. Pre-treating the cells with the acid (or lipid) made them withstand inflammation better.
Lowry thinks this understanding can lead to creating a "stress vaccine" that can be given to people in high-stress jobs, like first responders or soldiers. The vaccine can prevent the psychological effects of stress.
What's more, this friendly bacterium is not the only potentially helpful organism we can find in soil.
"This is just one strain of one species of one type of bacterium that is found in the soil but there are millions of other strains in soils," said Lowry. "We are just beginning to see the tip of the iceberg in terms of identifying the mechanisms through which they have evolved to keep us healthy. It should inspire awe in all of us."
Check out the study published in the journal Psychopharmacology.
SMARTER FASTER trademarks owned by The Big Think, Inc. All rights reserved.