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'Waves' of fluid clear the brain of toxins during sleep, say researchers
The finding represents one of the first times we have observed how the human brain clears out its waste products.
- Evidence has been mounting that one of the major functions of sleep is to clear out metabolic waste products like beta-amyloids and tau proteins.
- These waste products tend to accumulate in the brains of Alzheimer's patients, implying that they play some part in neurodegenerative diseases.
- Now, researchers from Boston University have discovered that these toxic byproducts are flushed out in waves by cerebrospinal fluid during the slow-wave sleep phase.
The function of sleep has been something of a mystery for a long time. Nearly every creature in the animal kingdom sleeps in one way or another, indicating that it's a highly important function for survival, even if lying around and having anxiety-inducing dreams doesn't really seem all that productive.
However, new research published in the journal Science may have just uncovered what's really going on in our brains while we dream about being late for an exam because our teeth fell out. Our brains may actually be taking a bath in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a watery substance that washes out all the gunk that accumulates in our brains over the course of the day.
Neurons take up a lot of energy. In fact, the brain alone accounts for roughly 20 percent of the body's total energy consumption. All of this activity and fuel-burning also means that the brain generates a lot of waste. Two varieties are particularly concerning: beta-amyloid peptides and tau proteins. Studies have shown that these waste products build up into clumps and entangled nets within the brains of Alzheimer's patients, damaging the connections between neurons.
The brain produces a lot of waste over the course of a day, and yet we don't see people getting tangles of tau proteins, deposits of beta-amyloids, and subsequent neurodegenerative diseases in their 30s. Part of the reason why is because when we sleep, our brain takes the trash out. Prior studies in mice have shown that the levels of neurotoxic waste products in the brain drop overnight. Now, this new study out of Boston University shows us how the brain gets clean.
Washing away the waste
An image depicting cerebrospinal fluid and how it surrounds the brain.
Blausen.com staff (2014). "Medical gallery of Blausen Medical 2014".
Lead author Laura Lewis and colleagues wanted to get a comprehensive picture of how the brain was clearing these waste products out overnight, so they recruited several participants to wear EEG caps to measure neural activity while also instructing the participants to sleep within an MRI to measure CSF activity — which isn't an easy task.
"We have so many people who are really excited to participate because they want to get paid to sleep," said Lewis. "But it turns out that their job is actually — secretly — almost the hardest part of our study. We have all this fancy equipment and complicated technologies, and often a big problem is that people can't fall asleep because they're in a really loud metal tube, and it's just a weird environment."
Fortunately, the participants did manage to get to sleep, revealing a never-before seen phenomenon take place in our brains every night. During a phase of non-REM sleep called slow-wave sleep, Lewis and colleagues observed an ebb and flow of electrical activity and CSF levels.
"First you would see this electrical wave where all the neurons would go quiet," said Lewis. A few seconds afterwards, Lewis and colleagues saw that "there are these really large, slow waves occurring maybe once every 20 seconds of CSF washing into the brain."
These waves of CSF washed away all of the brain's metabolic waste products that it accumulated over the course of the day. It seems like it'd be more efficient to have this rinse cycle going on all the time, but the researchers had a pretty good idea as to why it could only take place during deep sleep.
As the brain's neurons go quiet after a slow wave, they require less oxygen. Since they require less oxygen, less blood flows to these regions of the brain. With less blood, there's more space for CSF to rush in and scrub the brain of its waste products. "We've known for a while that there are these electrical waves of activity in the neurons," said Lewis, "But before now, we didn't realize that there are actually waves in the CSF, too."
When we're awake, our brains can't afford to make these coordinated waves in neural activity — it's too busy navigating traffic, reading a news article, or watching TV. Thus, our brains telling us that we feel tired is really their way of saying that they need to take a bath.
As we age, our brains tend to engage less often in slow-wave sleep, meaning junk has greater opportunity to pile up in the brain. Researchers believe that this build-up of junk is the cause of Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases. As a result, much of the research on treating such diseases has focused on getting rid of the junk — like administering drugs that target beta-amyloids or tau proteins. Lewis's research, however, points us in a new direction: Rather than try to get rid of the accumulating waste products in aging brains, maybe we should begin focusing our efforts on improving the brain's failing clean-up cycle instead.
Educators and administrators must build new supports for faculty and student success in a world where the classroom might become virtual in the blink of an eye.
- If you or someone you know is attending school remotely, you are more than likely learning through emergency remote instruction, which is not the same as online learning, write Rich DeMillo and Steve Harmon.
- Education institutions must properly define and understand the difference between a course that is designed from inception to be taught in an online format and a course that has been rapidly converted to be offered to remote students.
- In a future involving more online instruction than any of us ever imagined, it will be crucial to meticulously design factors like learner navigation, interactive recordings, feedback loops, exams and office hours in order to maximize learning potential within the virtual environment.
A leading British space scientist thinks there is life under the ice sheets of Europa.
- A British scientist named Professor Monica Grady recently came out in support of extraterrestrial life on Europa.
- Europa, the sixth largest moon in the solar system, may have favorable conditions for life under its miles of ice.
- The moon is one of Jupiter's 79.
Neil deGrasse Tyson wants to go ice fishing on Europa<div class="rm-shortcode" data-media_id="GLGsRX7e" data-player_id="FvQKszTI" data-rm-shortcode-id="f4790eb8f0515e036b24c4195299df28"> <div id="botr_GLGsRX7e_FvQKszTI_div" class="jwplayer-media" data-jwplayer-video-src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/GLGsRX7e-FvQKszTI.js"> <img src="https://cdn.jwplayer.com/thumbs/GLGsRX7e-1920.jpg" class="jwplayer-media-preview" /> </div> <script src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/GLGsRX7e-FvQKszTI.js"></script> </div>
Water Vapor Above Europa’s Surface Deteced for First Time<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="9c4abc8473e1b89170cc8941beeb1f2d"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/WQ-E1lnSOzc?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
New study shows white dwarf stars create an essential component of life.
- White dwarf stars create carbon atoms in the Milky Way galaxy, shows new study.
- Carbon is an essential component of life.
- White dwarfs make carbon in their hot insides before the stars die.
What Are White Dwarf Stars?<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="7b046e546ce994682b2553a8c978eb32"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/77a1KSxfaR0?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
Master negotiator Chris Voss breaks down how to get what you want during negotiations.
- Former FBI negotiator Chris Voss explains how forced empathy is a powerful negotiating tactic.
- The key is starting a sentence with "What" or "How," causing the other person to look at the situation through your eyes.
- What appears to signal weakness is turned into a strength when using this tactic.
3 Tips on Negotiations, with FBI Negotiator Chris Voss | Best of '16 | Big Think<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="b86d518e9f0c9f9d7a7c686e07798152"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/-FLlBchonwM?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span><p>This question forces a response, but—and this is key—the other person has to consider your side of the argument. They have to look at the situation from your perspective if they hope to offer a solution.</p><p>Offering a real-world example, Voss mentions coaching a high-end real estate agent. They were leasing an expensive home in the Hollywood Hills. The first time the negotiators asked the "how" question, the leasing agent relented on a number of terms. A little while later, they asked again. This time, the agent said, "If you want the house you're going to have to do it," signaling that the end of negotiations had been reached. </p><p>Voss says that "how" is not the only word that works. "What" is also a powerful entry into negotiations, such as "What am I supposed to do?" Again, you're forcing the other person to empathize. </p><p>This is a particularly tricky skill during a time when most conversations are online. Nuance is impossible without the immediacy of pantomimes and vocal fluctuations. Whataboutism is too easy an escape. </p>
Aikido Morihei Ueshiba (1883 - 1969, standing, centre left), founder of the Japanese martial art of aikido, demonstrating his art with a follower, at the opening ceremony of the newly-opened aikido headquarters, Hombu Dojo, in Shinjuku, Tokyo, 1967.
(Photo by Keystone/Hulton Archive/Getty Images)<p>Online debates often amount to little more than frustrated individuals pulling out their hair. In his book, "Against Empathy," Yale psychology professor Paul Bloom writes that effective altruists are able to focus on what really matters in everyday life.</p><p>For example, he compares politics to sports. Rooting for your favorite team isn't based in rationality. If you're a Red Sox fan, Yankees stats don't matter. You just want to destroy them. This, he believes, is how most people treat politics. "They don't care about truth because, for them, it's not really about truth."</p><p>Bloom writes that if his son believed our ancestors rode dinosaurs, it would horrify him, but "I can't think of a view that matters less for everyday life." We have to strive for rationality when the stakes are high. When involved in real decision-making processes that will affect their life, people are better able to express ideas and make arguments, and are more receptive to opposing ideas. </p><p>Because we "become inured to problems that seem unrelenting," it's imperative to make the problem seem immediate. As Voss says, giving the other side "the illusion of control" is one way of accomplishing this, as it forces them to take action. When people feel out of control, negotiations are impossible. People dig their heels in and refuse to budge. </p><p>What seems to be weakness is actually a strength. To borrow another martial arts metaphor, negotiations are like aikido: using your opponent's force against them while also protecting them from injury. Forcing empathy is one way to accomplish this task. You may get more than you ask for without the other side ever realizing they surrendered anything.</p><p>--</p><p><em>Stay in touch with Derek on <a href="http://www.twitter.com/derekberes" target="_blank">Twitter</a>, <a href="https://www.facebook.com/DerekBeresdotcom" target="_blank">Facebook</a> and <a href="https://derekberes.substack.com/" target="_blank">Substack</a>. His next book is</em> "<em>Hero's Dose: The Case For Psychedelics in Ritual and Therapy."</em></p>