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Many vegetative patients are actually 'covertly conscious'
This unsettling new understanding of vegetative patients raises medical ethics issues.
- For a long time, doctors assessed whether patients were in vegetative states through behavioral tests.
- However, brain scans have revealed that some of these patients are actually in a state of "covert consciousness."
- Covertly conscious patients are aware of their surroundings, but cannot respond to external stimuli.
In 2005, a 23-year-old woman was caught in a traffic accident that gave her a traumatic brain injury. Her doctors diagnosed her as being in a vegetative state — that is, absent of awareness and responsiveness, but still able to keep her heart pumping, her lungs breathing, to fall asleep and become awake, and so on.
Five months after her accident, however, researchers conducted an experiment showing that she had not completely lost her conscious awareness. Using an fMRI, researchers asked her to imagine playing tennis or walking through her house. Though the patient had been unable to respond to any other cues, the fMRI showed that her brain lit up when asked to imagine these things, suggesting that she was, in fact, conscious to some degree — just unable to move her hands or open her eyes on command. This patient would be the first time that signs of consciousness were detected in an ostensibly vegetative state using fMRI.
The trouble with diagnosing vegetative states
Since then, more and more cases of this sort have come to light. In fact, over the years, researchers estimate that around 10 to 20 percent of supposedly vegetative patients in fact experience what's called "covert" consciousness. Patients with covert consciousness do not respond to behavioral tests of awareness yet show brain activity related to awareness. It is important to note that covertly conscious patients do not fail to respond to behavioral tests because they are paralyzed. Instead, they fail to respond because the parts of their brain that respond to stimuli are damaged — they can still move, and sometimes will, but typically not in response to external stimuli.
After a traumatic brain injury that lands a patient in an ostensibly vegetative state, many clinicians assume a poor prognosis. As a result, many families decide whether to keep their loved one on life support or to withdraw it within the first three days after admission.
"The problem with severe brain injury," said neuroscientist Nicholas Schiff in The Scientist, "is that you have people who all look the same who could have very different trajectories of recovery over time, response to treatment, or already achieved level of recovery." Better diagnostic tools are needed to "sort the variance and also to figure out who we should look at more closely and immediately."
A better method
A healthcare professional administers an EEG.
BSIP/Universal Images Group via Getty Images
Patients with covert consciousness have been shown to recover at higher rates than those in persistent vegetative states even though they appear to be the same from the outside. Deciding to pull the plug on a loved one is never an easy task, but the uncertainty of whether or not they are truly beyond help makes it even more difficult.
Fortunately, researchers are working on ways to improve diagnosing these cases of covert consciousness. While fMRIs were the original way that researchers detected covert consciousness, applying them in critical care settings can be challenging. Electroencephalographs (EEGs) are likely to be far more useful as a diagnostic tool.
The first large-scale demonstration of using EEGs to diagnose cases of covert consciousness was recently published in the New England Journal of Medicine, where doctors asked patients to move their hands (which neither vegetative nor covertly conscious patients can do), and then used machine learning to decipher their EEG readings to identify brain activity in response to the commands. Twelve months later, 44 percent of those patients who were detected to have some brain activity were no longer vegetative and could function independently compared to just 14 percent of patients with no sign of activity in the EEG.
"This is very big for the field," Nicholas Schiff told The New York Times. "The understanding that, as the brain recovers, one in seven people could be conscious and aware, very much aware, of what's being said about them, and that this applies every day, in every I.C.U. — it's gigantic."
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Construction of the $500 billion dollar tech city-state of the future is moving ahead.
- The futuristic megacity Neom is being built in Saudi Arabia.
- The city will be fully automated, leading in health, education and quality of life.
- It will feature an artificial moon, cloud seeding, robotic gladiators and flying taxis.
The Red Sea area where Neom will be built:
Saudi Arabia Plans Futuristic City, "Neom" (Full Promotional Video)<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="c646d528d230c1bf66c75422bc4ccf6f"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/N53DzL3_BHA?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
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Emotions are the newest hot commodity, and we can't get enough.
Frequent shopping for single items adds to our carbon footprint.
- A new study shows e-commerce sites like Amazon leave larger greenhouse gas footprints than retail stores.
- Ordering online from retail stores has an even smaller footprint than going to the store yourself.
- Greening efforts by major e-commerce sites won't curb wasteful consumer habits. Consolidating online orders can make a difference.
A pile of recycled cardboard sits on the ground at Recology's Recycle Central on January 4, 2018 in San Francisco, California.
Photo by Justin Sullivan/Getty Images<p>A large part of the reason is speed. In a competitive market, pure players use the equation, <em>speed + convenience</em>, to drive adoption. This is especially relevant to the "last mile" GHG footprint: the distance between the distribution center and the consumer.</p><p>Interestingly, the smallest GHG footprint occurs when you order directly from a physical store—even smaller than going there yourself. Pure players, such as Amazon, are the greatest offenders. Variables like geographic location matter; the team looked at shopping in the UK, the US, China, and the Netherlands. </p><p>Sadegh Shahmohammadi, a PhD student at the Netherlands' Radboud University and corresponding author of the paper, <a href="https://www.cnn.com/2020/02/26/tech/greenhouse-gas-emissions-retail/index.html" target="_blank">says</a> the above "pattern holds true in countries where people mostly drive. It really depends on the country and consumer behavior there."</p><p>The researchers write that this year-and-a-half long study pushes back on previous research that claims online shopping to be better in terms of GHG footprints.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"They have, however, compared the GHG emissions per shopping event and did not consider the link between the retail channels and the basket size, which leads to a different conclusion than that of the current study."</p><p>Online retail is where convenience trumps environment: people tend to order one item at a time when shopping on pure player sites, whereas they stock up on multiple items when visiting a store. Consumers will sometimes order a number of separate items over the course of a week rather than making one trip to purchase everything they need. </p><p>While greening efforts by online retailers are important, until a shift in consumer attitude changes, the current carbon footprint will be a hard obstacle to overcome. Amazon is trying to have it both ways—carbon-free and convenience addicted—and the math isn't adding up. If you need to order things, do it online, but try to consolidate your purchases as much as possible.</p><p>--</p><p><em>Stay in touch with Derek on <a href="http://www.twitter.com/derekberes" target="_blank">Twitter</a>, <a href="https://www.facebook.com/DerekBeresdotcom" target="_blank">Facebook</a> and <a href="https://derekberes.substack.com/" target="_blank">Substack</a>. His next book is</em> "<em>Hero's Dose: The Case For Psychedelics in Ritual and Therapy."</em></p>
Building a personal connection with students can counteract some negative side effects of remote learning.