Socrates Wouldn’t Trust the Web. Should We Trust Him?

Thinkers worried about the Web rotting our brains would find an ally in the ancient Greek sage. But are their fears justified?

What’s the Big Idea?

In a 2010 Big Think interview, technology writer Nicholas Carr (The Shallows: What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains) argued that the Web has made its users proficient at searching and browsing, but lousy at reading and remembering. The distraction-filled online world, he claimed, has transformed us on the neurological as well as the cultural level, eroding our attention spans and even our capacity to form long-term memories.

Now a new study, recently reported in Scientific American, has found that excessive online time can literally rewire our brains, causing mental health problems as well as shrinkage of surface-level brain matter. While the study focused on genuine Internet addiction, it joins a growing body of evidence suggesting that frequent computer use may impair students’ academic performance.

Some commentators argue that such findings provide little cause for concern—and that the fears surrounding them are nothing new. In his review of The Shallows in the New York Times, science writer Jonah Lehrer compares Carr’s anxieties to those of Socrates, who “started what may have been the first technology scare” by openly distrusting the written word. “The preponderance of scientific evidence,” Lehrer insists, “suggests that the Internet…[is] actually good for the mind.”

What’s the Significance?

The Times review alludes specifically to a passage from Plato’s Phaedrus, in which Socrates approvingly quotes an Egyptian king’s skepticism about writing:

This discovery of yours will create forgetfulness in the learners' souls, because they will not use their memories; they will trust to the external written characters and not remember of themselves…you give your disciples not truth, but only the semblance of truth; they will be hearers of many things and will have learned nothing. (Phaedrus, Benjamin Jowett trans.)

Lehrer grants that Socrates’ fears of cultural loss were not totally unfounded, noting that “the rise of the written text led to the decline of oral poetry.” But he points out that “every technology comes with trade-offs. Look, for instance, at literacy itself: when children learn to decode letters, they usurp large chunks of the visual cortex previously devoted to object recognition…[and] are less able to ‘read’ the details of the natural world.”

The question remains: is this particular tradeoff worth making? In a 2009 Big Think interview, essayist and journalist Laurence Gonzales took perhaps the most moderate stance on the issue, contributing a little philosophical wisdom of his own:

“It’s a good thing to question these technologies the way Socrates questioned the new technology of writing at that time. And if he saw what was going on today, he would probably say, ‘You know, this Internet is a really bad idea.’ And he’d probably be right in certain ways. He would be wrong in certain ways…He would be right in the sense that it tends to make us shallower if we’re not careful—if we don’t use it to augment our scholarship and our thinking, if instead we use it to replace our scholarship and our thinking.”

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The pizza giant Domino's partners with a Silicon Valley startup to start delivering pizza by robots.

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  • Domino's partnered with the Silicon Valley startup Nuro to have robot cars deliver pizza.
  • The trial run will begin in Houston later this year.
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Would you have to tip robots? You might be answering that question sooner than you think as Domino's is about to start using robots for delivering pizza. Later this year a fleet of self-driving robotic vehicles will be spreading the joy of pizza throughout the Houston area for the famous pizza manufacturer, using delivery cars made by the Silicon Valley startup Nuro.

The startup, founded by Google veterans, raised $940 million in February and has already been delivering groceries for Kroger around Houston. Partnering with the pizza juggernaut Domino's, which delivers close to 3 million pizzas a day, is another logical step for the expanding drone car business.

Kevin Vasconi of Domino's explained in a press release that they see these specially-designed robots as "a valuable partner in our autonomous vehicle journey," adding "The opportunity to bring our customers the choice of an unmanned delivery experience, and our operators an additional delivery solution during a busy store rush, is an important part of our autonomous vehicle testing."

How will they work exactly? Nuro explained in its own press release that this "opportunity to use Nuro's autonomous delivery" will be available for some of the customers who order online. Once they opt in, they'll be able to track the car via an app. When the vehicle gets to them, the customers will use a special PIN code to unlock the pizza compartment.

Nuro and its competitors Udelv and Robomart have been focusing specifically on developing such "last-mile product delivery" machines, reports Arstechnica. Their specially-made R1 vehicle is about half the size of a regular passenger car and doesn't offer any room for a driver. This makes it safer and lighter too, with less potential to cause harm in case of an accident. It also sticks to a fairly low speed of under 25 miles an hour and slams on the breaks at the first sign of trouble.

What also helps such robot cars is "geofencing" technology which confines them to a limited area surrounding the store.

For now, the cars are still tracked around the neighborhoods by human-driven vehicles, with monitors to make sure nothing goes haywire. But these "chase cars" should be phased out eventually, an important milestone in the evolution of your robot pizza drivers.

Check out how Nuro's vehicles work: