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How Big is the Pay Gap for Women in Tech? Pretty Big, According to These Infographics
It's worse -- and better -- than you think.
Even in the upper echelons of the tech world, unequal pay is a problem.
Salary research company Paysa wanted to understand the scope of the problem, so they did what they do best: gather and crunch data. As they explain on their blog, they looked at 62 early-stage companies and 1,143 jobs in the San Francisco Bay area to figure out the scope of the pay gap between men and women in tech. Here’s what they found.
Of the 1,143 jobs Paysa reviewed, women only held 50 of them -- and those positions skew towards women. 95% of Executive Assistant jobs are staffed by women. 63% of VP Human Resources jobs are staffed by women. Higher paying positions, like Executive Project Managers and Chief of Staff, are only staffed by women 45% and 46% of the time, respectively. That means women who want to move into higher paying positions would have fewer female coworkers, mentors, and peers to help them. That’s not an ideal situation for getting more women into the industry, as fellow salary research company PayScale points out: “If you work in tech and manage to get yourself a good job, the biggest challenge may be finding a work environment where you feel like part of the team, valued equally with the guys.”
It’s also not ideal for helping women learn technical skills that could lead to better jobs with better pay. As Paysa explains on their blog, “women make up an average of 26 percent of the workforce across multiple industries in technical job roles.” Worst of all? “Jobs in the Computer Programing Services industry (average salary of $205,000) and Ride-Sharing Services (average salary of $268,000) have only 23 percent of their positions staffed by women.”
The biggest takeaway here is that men hold the vast majority of high-paying jobs. Specifically for this sample size, positions where women make up less than 50% of the workforce the average pay is $119,000. That may sound like a lot of money, but that’s peanuts in the tech world:
That graph above is supposed to have red and blue dots, but because women held so few jobs it kind of broke the graph.
That said, gender preference can work in favor of women, too. There are industries where women earn more than men, as Paysa points out. “The highest difference in favor of women is almost 9 percent in the Publishing and Printing industry… but even then, [no industry] has a double-digit difference [emphasis theirs].”
Geography has a lot to do with those numbers, too, as Paysa discovered:
Berkeley, where there is an 8.6 percent gap between male and female salaries, has the lowest percentage of women employed (24 percent). In Palo Alto, where 26 percent of the workforce is female, there is a 4.2 percent difference in wages. The smallest difference in wages is found in San Ramon, where men typically earn 1.3 percent more than women. The city of San Ramon holds one of the highest proportions of women in the workforce (29 percent), fourth only to San Jose, Fremont, and Pleasanton.
Those numbers sound dire, but they’re impacted by geography, too. Generally speaking, the pay gap is much smaller outside the Bay Area. As The New York Times reports, “female computer scientists make 89 percent of what men in the same occupation make, controlling for age, race, hours, and education, according to data from Claudia Goldin, a Harvard University labor economist and expert on women and the economy. For engineering managers, pay is just about equal.” The Times is unclear about Goldin draws her sample from, but her numbers are backed up by fellow salary research company Comparably. Comparably surveyed 10,000 tech workers and discovered the biggest pay discrepancy by gender is actually in Atlanta -- and the smallest is in Salt Lake City.
The reason for the pay discrepancies vary, too. None of the salary research companies offered any answers, but Comparably’s data seems to suggest that age and education are important factors. The Times reports that Goldin “concluded that it was the job itself -- not selection bias because of the small number of women in tech or features of particular industries -- that makes the difference.” That seems difficult to believe given these surveys, but perhaps her research used a larger sample size that better demonstrates that theory. Then again, The Times piece was written in 2014 whereas the salary research companies all got their data from the last 12 months.
Until we see data substantiating Goldin's research, these surveys are incredibly helpful. While the Paysa one was incredibly focused, it -- like the others cited here -- shed helpful light on specific aspects of the glass ceiling women in tech are trying to smash. The best way to fix it? Flexible hours, according to Goldin in The Times, “The key reason women in tech fare better in terms of salary is that tech jobs tend to offer more flexibility in terms of where and when people work--the most important element in eliminating the pay gap, according to Ms. Goldin's research.” Companies like PayPal, SalesForce, and Yahoo are taking notice and offering greater flexibility in order to end the gender pay gap.
Hopefully more tech companies will do the same.
Northwell Health is using insights from website traffic to forecast COVID-19 hospitalizations two weeks in the future.
- The machine-learning algorithm works by analyzing the online behavior of visitors to the Northwell Health website and comparing that data to future COVID-19 hospitalizations.
- The tool, which uses anonymized data, has so far predicted hospitalizations with an accuracy rate of 80 percent.
- Machine-learning tools are helping health-care professionals worldwide better constrain and treat COVID-19.
The value of forecasting<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNTA0Njk2OC9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYyMzM2NDQzOH0.rid9regiDaKczCCKBsu7wrHkNQ64Vz_XcOEZIzAhzgM/img.jpg?width=980" id="2bb93" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="31345afbdf2bd408fd3e9f31520c445a" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" data-width="1546" data-height="1056" />
Northwell emergency departments use the dashboard to monitor in real time.
Credit: Northwell Health<p>One unique benefit of forecasting COVID-19 hospitalizations is that it allows health systems to better prepare, manage and allocate resources. For example, if the tool forecasted a surge in COVID-19 hospitalizations in two weeks, Northwell Health could begin:</p><ul><li>Making space for an influx of patients</li><li>Moving personal protective equipment to where it's most needed</li><li>Strategically allocating staff during the predicted surge</li><li>Increasing the number of tests offered to asymptomatic patients</li></ul><p>The health-care field is increasingly using machine learning. It's already helping doctors develop <a href="https://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/early/2020/06/09/dc19-1870" target="_blank">personalized care plans for diabetes patients</a>, improving cancer screening techniques, and enabling mental health professionals to better predict which patients are at <a href="https://healthitanalytics.com/news/ehr-data-fuels-accurate-predictive-analytics-for-suicide-risk" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">elevated risk of suicide</a>, to name a few applications.</p><p>Health systems around the world have already begun exploring how <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7315944/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">machine learning can help battle the pandemic</a>, including better COVID-19 screening, diagnosis, contact tracing, and drug and vaccine development.</p><p>Cruzen said these kinds of tools represent a shift in how health systems can tackle a wide variety of problems.</p><p>"Health care has always used the past to predict the future, but not in this mathematical way," Cruzen said. "I think [Northwell Health's new predictive tool] really is a great first example of how we should be attacking a lot of things as we go forward."</p>
Making machine-learning tools openly accessible<p>Northwell Health has made its predictive tool <a href="https://github.com/northwell-health/covid-web-data-predictor" target="_blank">available for free</a> to any health system that wishes to utilize it.</p><p>"COVID is everybody's problem, and I think developing tools that can be used to help others is sort of why people go into health care," Dr. Cruzen said. "It was really consistent with our mission."</p><p>Open collaboration is something the world's governments and health systems should be striving for during the pandemic, said Michael Dowling, Northwell Health's president and CEO.</p><p>"Whenever you develop anything and somebody else gets it, they improve it and they continue to make it better," Dowling said. "As a country, we lack data. I believe very, very strongly that we should have been and should be now working with other countries, including China, including the European Union, including England and others to figure out how to develop a health surveillance system so you can anticipate way in advance when these things are going to occur."</p><p>In all, Northwell Health has treated more than 112,000 COVID patients. During the pandemic, Dowling said he's seen an outpouring of goodwill, collaboration, and sacrifice from the community and the tens of thousands of staff who work across Northwell.</p><p>"COVID has changed our perspective on everything—and not just those of us in health care, because it has disrupted everybody's life," Dowling said. "It has demonstrated the value of community, how we help one another."</p>
"You dream about these kinds of moments when you're a kid," said lead paleontologist David Schmidt.
- The triceratops skull was first discovered in 2019, but was excavated over the summer of 2020.
- It was discovered in the South Dakota Badlands, an area where the Triceratops roamed some 66 million years ago.
- Studying dinosaurs helps scientists better understand the evolution of all life on Earth.
Credit: David Schmidt / Westminster College<p style="margin-left: 20px;">"We had to be really careful," Schmidt told St. Louis Public Radio. "We couldn't disturb anything at all, because at that point, it was under law enforcement investigation. They were telling us, 'Don't even make footprints,' and I was thinking, 'How are we supposed to do that?'"</p><p>Another difficulty was the mammoth size of the skull: about 7 feet long and more than 3,000 pounds. (For context, the largest triceratops skull ever unearthed was about <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02724634.2010.483632" target="_blank">8.2 feet long</a>.) The skull of Schmidt's dinosaur was likely a <em>Triceratops prorsus, </em>one of two species of triceratops that roamed what's now North America about 66 million years ago.</p>
Credit: David Schmidt / Westminster College<p>The triceratops was an herbivore, but it was also a favorite meal of the T<em>yrannosaurus rex</em>. That probably explains why the Dakotas contain many scattered triceratops bone fragments, and, less commonly, complete bones and skulls. In summer 2019, for example, a separate team on a dig in North Dakota made <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/26/science/triceratops-skull-65-million-years-old.html" target="_blank">headlines</a> after unearthing a complete triceratops skull that measured five feet in length.</p><p>Michael Kjelland, a biology professor who participated in that excavation, said digging up the dinosaur was like completing a "multi-piece, 3-D jigsaw puzzle" that required "engineering that rivaled SpaceX," he jokingly told the <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/26/science/triceratops-skull-65-million-years-old.html" target="_blank">New York Times</a>.</p>
Morrison Formation in Colorado
James St. John via Flickr
|Credit: Nobu Tamura/Wikimedia Commons|
Archaeologists discover a cave painting of a wild pig that is now the world's oldest dated work of representational art.
- Archaeologists find a cave painting of a wild pig that is at least 45,500 years old.
- The painting is the earliest known work of representational art.
- The discovery was made in a remote valley on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi.
Oldest Cave Art Found in Sulawesi<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="a9734e306f0914bfdcbe79a1e317a7f0"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/b-wAYtBxn7E?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
The Persian polymath and philosopher of the Islamic Golden Age teaches us about self-awareness.