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How Big is the Pay Gap for Women in Tech? Pretty Big, According to These Infographics
It's worse -- and better -- than you think.
Even in the upper echelons of the tech world, unequal pay is a problem.
Salary research company Paysa wanted to understand the scope of the problem, so they did what they do best: gather and crunch data. As they explain on their blog, they looked at 62 early-stage companies and 1,143 jobs in the San Francisco Bay area to figure out the scope of the pay gap between men and women in tech. Here’s what they found.
Of the 1,143 jobs Paysa reviewed, women only held 50 of them -- and those positions skew towards women. 95% of Executive Assistant jobs are staffed by women. 63% of VP Human Resources jobs are staffed by women. Higher paying positions, like Executive Project Managers and Chief of Staff, are only staffed by women 45% and 46% of the time, respectively. That means women who want to move into higher paying positions would have fewer female coworkers, mentors, and peers to help them. That’s not an ideal situation for getting more women into the industry, as fellow salary research company PayScale points out: “If you work in tech and manage to get yourself a good job, the biggest challenge may be finding a work environment where you feel like part of the team, valued equally with the guys.”
It’s also not ideal for helping women learn technical skills that could lead to better jobs with better pay. As Paysa explains on their blog, “women make up an average of 26 percent of the workforce across multiple industries in technical job roles.” Worst of all? “Jobs in the Computer Programing Services industry (average salary of $205,000) and Ride-Sharing Services (average salary of $268,000) have only 23 percent of their positions staffed by women.”
The biggest takeaway here is that men hold the vast majority of high-paying jobs. Specifically for this sample size, positions where women make up less than 50% of the workforce the average pay is $119,000. That may sound like a lot of money, but that’s peanuts in the tech world:
That graph above is supposed to have red and blue dots, but because women held so few jobs it kind of broke the graph.
That said, gender preference can work in favor of women, too. There are industries where women earn more than men, as Paysa points out. “The highest difference in favor of women is almost 9 percent in the Publishing and Printing industry… but even then, [no industry] has a double-digit difference [emphasis theirs].”
Geography has a lot to do with those numbers, too, as Paysa discovered:
Berkeley, where there is an 8.6 percent gap between male and female salaries, has the lowest percentage of women employed (24 percent). In Palo Alto, where 26 percent of the workforce is female, there is a 4.2 percent difference in wages. The smallest difference in wages is found in San Ramon, where men typically earn 1.3 percent more than women. The city of San Ramon holds one of the highest proportions of women in the workforce (29 percent), fourth only to San Jose, Fremont, and Pleasanton.
Those numbers sound dire, but they’re impacted by geography, too. Generally speaking, the pay gap is much smaller outside the Bay Area. As The New York Times reports, “female computer scientists make 89 percent of what men in the same occupation make, controlling for age, race, hours, and education, according to data from Claudia Goldin, a Harvard University labor economist and expert on women and the economy. For engineering managers, pay is just about equal.” The Times is unclear about Goldin draws her sample from, but her numbers are backed up by fellow salary research company Comparably. Comparably surveyed 10,000 tech workers and discovered the biggest pay discrepancy by gender is actually in Atlanta -- and the smallest is in Salt Lake City.
The reason for the pay discrepancies vary, too. None of the salary research companies offered any answers, but Comparably’s data seems to suggest that age and education are important factors. The Times reports that Goldin “concluded that it was the job itself -- not selection bias because of the small number of women in tech or features of particular industries -- that makes the difference.” That seems difficult to believe given these surveys, but perhaps her research used a larger sample size that better demonstrates that theory. Then again, The Times piece was written in 2014 whereas the salary research companies all got their data from the last 12 months.
Until we see data substantiating Goldin's research, these surveys are incredibly helpful. While the Paysa one was incredibly focused, it -- like the others cited here -- shed helpful light on specific aspects of the glass ceiling women in tech are trying to smash. The best way to fix it? Flexible hours, according to Goldin in The Times, “The key reason women in tech fare better in terms of salary is that tech jobs tend to offer more flexibility in terms of where and when people work--the most important element in eliminating the pay gap, according to Ms. Goldin's research.” Companies like PayPal, SalesForce, and Yahoo are taking notice and offering greater flexibility in order to end the gender pay gap.
Hopefully more tech companies will do the same.
A cave in France contains man’s earliest-known structures that had to be built by Neanderthals who were believed to be incapable of such things.
In a French cave deep underground, scientists have discovered what appear to be 176,000-year-old man-made structures. That's 150,000 years earlier than any that have been discovered anywhere before. And they could only have been built by Neanderthals, people who were never before considered capable of such a thing.
Water may be far more abundant on the lunar surface than previously thought.
- Scientists have long thought that water exists on the lunar surface, but it wasn't until 2018 that ice was first discovered on the moon.
- A study published Monday used NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy to confirm the presence of molecular water..
- A second study suggests that shadowy regions on the lunar surface may also contain more ice than previously thought.
Credits: NASA/Daniel Rutter<p>Still, it's not as if the moon is dripping wet. The observations suggest that a cubic meter of the lunar surface (in the Clavius crater site, at least) contains water in concentrations of 100 to 412 parts per million. That's roughly equivalent to a 12-ounce bottle of water. In comparison, the same plot of land in the Sahara desert contains about 100 times more water.</p><p>But a second study suggests other parts of the lunar surface also contain water — and potentially lots of it. Also publishing their findings in <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41550-020-1198-9#_blank" target="_blank">Nature Astronomy</a> on Monday, the researchers used the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter to study "cold traps" near the moon's polar regions. These areas of the lunar surface are permanently covered in shadows. In fact, about 0.15 percent of the lunar surface is permanently shadowed, and it's here that water could remain frozen for millions of years.</p><p>Some of these permanently shadowed regions are huge, extending more than a kilometer wide. But others span just 1 cm. These smaller "micro cold traps" are much more abundant than previously thought, and they're spread out across more regions of the lunar surface, according to the new research.</p>
Credit: dottedyeti via AdobeStock<p>Still, the second study didn't confirm that ice is embedded in micro cold traps. But if there is, it would mean that water would be much more accessible to astronauts, considering they wouldn't have to travel into deep, shadowy craters to extract water.</p><p>Greater accessibility to water would not only make it easier for astronauts to get drinking water, but could also enable them to generate rocket fuel and power.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"Water is a valuable resource, for both scientific purposes and for use by our explorers," said Jacob Bleacher, chief exploration scientist in the advanced exploration systems division for NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate, in a statement. "If we can use the resources at the Moon, then we can carry less water and more equipment to help enable new scientific discoveries."</p>