Is poetry translatable?
Sometimes literature could be enriched by translation. But in general people think there are problemes connected with something we call in germany "Texttreue" (fidelity/loyalty to a text). Should a translator be more directed to the words and form of a text or to the content? Of course both are connected, but in which way and is it able to translate the connection between form and content? For example "Les Fleurs du Mal" (Baudelaire). I have two translations. One is written in a very rigid one trying to keep the metre, the rhyme and rhythm. The second one is a prose-translation. I don't want to judge because both TOGETHER give us two approaches to ask about the connection of form and content by emphasizing the one or the other aspect. The reader has the chance to synthesize them to a whole. Translation is a question of analysing and transmitting of something (the connection of the two aspects mentioned above). Perhaps we now realise that the question of translation is not just reduced to the question of translation between different languages only. Even in ones own language one has to translate a poem. All the chiffres have to be translated from the sphere of giving-the-meaning (meanging has to be given by someone to something in a sphere where someone and something are related to each other) and the sphere of meaning (a reservoir of meanings from which the author borrows the things and meanings) and the linguistic means to reception. Even an author could not know all the meanings he transmits unintentionally. And to have the same passport does not necessarily mean to understand the language of the neighbour. Perhaps we grasp the surface of what someone said but all the associations are more than social. Not everyone in a society has the same associations with 'sky or skin' - meaning is not determined. It is a matter of an ongoing negotiation from individual to individual, from group to group and so on and from context to context.
Pfizer's partnerships strengthen their ability to deliver vaccines in developing countries.
- Pfizer is helping to drive the UN's sustainable development goals through partnerships.
Swiss researchers identify new dangers of modern cocaine.
- Cocaine cut with anti-worming adulterant levamisole may cause brain damage.
- Levamisole can thin out the prefrontal cortex and affect cognitive skills.
- Government health programs should encourage testing of cocaine for purity.
Civil discourse has fallen to an all time low.
The question that the American populace needs to ask itself now is: how do we fix it?
Discursive fundamentals need to be taught to preserve free expression
In their findings the authors state:
upholding First Amendment ideals.
Talking politics at Thanksgiving dinner
- Progressive Activists: younger, highly engaged, secular, cosmopolitan, angry.
- Traditional Liberals: older, retired, open to compromise, rational, cautious.
- Passive Liberals: unhappy, insecure, distrustful, disillusioned.
- Politically Disengaged: young, low income, distrustful, detached, patriotic, conspiratorial
- Moderates: engaged, civic-minded, middle-of-the-road, pessimistic, Protestant.
- Traditional Conservatives: religious, middle class, patriotic, moralistic.
- Devoted Conservatives: white, retired, highly engaged, uncompromising,
It's interesting to note the authors found that:
"Tribe membership shows strong reliability in predicting views across different political topics."
Here are some statistics on differing viewpoints according to political party:
- 51% of staunch liberals say it's "morally acceptable" to punch Nazis.
- 53% of Republicans favor stripping U.S. citizenship from people who burn the American flag.
- 65% of Republicans say NFL players should be fired if they refuse to stand for the anthem.
- 58% of Democrats say employers should punish employees for offensive Facebook posts.
- 47% of Republicans favor bans on building new mosques.
Here are some guidelines for civic discourse that might come in handy:
- Practice inclusion and listen to who you're speaking to.
Civic discourse in the divisive age
dangerously tribal, fueled by a culture of outrage and taking offense. For the combatants,
the other side can no longer be tolerated, and no price is too high to defeat them.
These tensions are poisoning personal relationships, consuming our politics and
putting our democracy in peril.
Once a country has become tribalized, debates about contested issues from
immigration and trade to economic management, climate change and national security,
become shaped by larger tribal identities. Policy debate gives way to tribal conflicts.
Polarization and tribalism are self-reinforcing and will likely continue to accelerate.
The work of rebuilding our fragmented society needs to start now. It extends from
re-connecting people across the lines of division in local communities all the way to
building a renewed sense of national identity: a bigger story of us."
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