Will the H.P.V. Vaccine Work?
With so many essential questions unanswered, there is good reason to be cautious about introducing large-scale HPV vaccination. Instead, we should concentrate on getting answers.
What's the Latest Development?
In the relatively new global initiative to vaccinate young girls against the human papillomavirus (H.P.V.), the world's most common sexually-transmitted disease which can also cause cervical cancer, big questions remain about the vaccine's effectiveness. While there are more than 100 different types of H.P.V., at least 15 of which cause cancer, the vaccine protects only against the two most important cancer-causing strains, HPV-16 and HPV-18. Cervical cancer currently causes 250,000 deaths annually.
What's the Big Idea?
While clinical trials of an H.P.V. vaccine predict success in reducing rates of cervical cancer, real data on the vaccine's effectiveness, and potential downsides, will not be available for decades to come. In the mean time, large questions loom: "How long does the vaccine provide protection without a booster? Does it affect natural immunity against H.P.V., and with what consequences? Can we really be sure that the vaccine protects preadolescent girls when proper clinical trials have been carried out only in women aged 16 to 24?"
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A NASA astronomer explains how astronauts dispose of their, uh, dark matter.
- When nature calls in micro-gravity, astronauts must answer. Space agencies have developed suction-based toilets – with a camera built in to ensure all the waste is contained before "flushing".
- Yes, there have been floaters in space. The early days of space exploration were a learning curve!
- Amazingly, you don't need gravity to digest food. Peristalsis, the process by which your throat and intestines squeeze themselves, actually moves food and water through your digestive system without gravity at all.
The Harvard psychologist loves reading authors' rules for writing. Here are his own.
- Steven Pinker is many things: linguist, psychologist, optimist, Harvard professor, and author.
- When it comes to writing, he's a student and a teacher.
- Here's are his 13 rules for writing better, more simply, and more clearly.
A growing body of research shows promising signs that the keto diet might be able to improve mental health.
- The keto diet is known to be an effective tool for weight loss, however its effects on mental health remain largely unclear.
- Recent studies suggests that the keto diet might be an effective tool for treating depression, and clearing up so-called "brain fog," though scientists caution more research is necessary before it can be recommended as a treatment.
- Any experiments with the keto diet are best done in conjunction with a doctor, considering some people face problems when transitioning to the low-carb diet.
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