What Science Knows About Dreams
The scientific study of dreams is known as oneirology. Rather than being concerned with what dreams mean, it is more interested in the processes that give rise to dreams.
What's the Latest Development?
As technology continues to unveil the brain, the study of dreams, known as oneirology, has made some impressive gains. In a 2004 study, it was revealed that people mostly dream about the same things, such as running in place, flying, losing teeth and, of course, sex. About eight percent of all dreams are sexual, say researchers. But dreams are far from always pleasurable. In fact, negative emotion is more common than positive emotion in dreams and bad fortune more common than good fortune.
What's the Big Idea?
While dream interpretation was perhaps popularized by psychologists like Jung and Freud, cultures have read into dreams for thousands of years. The ancient cultures of Mesopotamia in the 3rd century B.C. are known to have kept dream logs, complete with interpretations. Yet for all our interest in dreams, there remain some holes in our understanding of them. There is still no clear biological definition of the phenomenon and sleep's deeper mechanisms remain somewhat muddled.
The ability to speak clearly, succinctly, and powerfully is easier than you think
The ability to communicate effectively can make or break a person's assessment of your intelligence, competence, and authenticity.
Antimicrobial resistance is growing worldwide, rendering many "work horse" medicines ineffective. Without intervention, drug-resistant pathogens could lead to millions of deaths by 2050. Thankfully, companies like Pfizer are taking action.
- Antimicrobial-resistant pathogens are one of the largest threats to global health today.
- As we get older, our immune systems age, increasing our risk of life threatening infections. Without reliable antibiotics, life expectancy could decline for the first time in modern history.
- If antibiotics become ineffective, common infections could result in hospitalization or even death. Life-saving interventions like cancer treatments and organ transplantation would become more difficult, more often resulting in death. Routine procedures would become hard to perform.
- Without intervention, resistant pathogens could result in 10 million annual deaths by 2050.
- By taking a multi-faceted approach—inclusive of adherence to good stewardship, surveillance and responsible manufacturing practices, as well as an emphasis on prevention and treatment—companies like Pfizer are fighting to help curb the spread.
The climate change we're witnessing is more dramatic than we might think.
A lazy buzz phrase – 'Is this the new normal?' – has been doing the rounds as extreme climate events have been piling up over the past year. To which the riposte should be: it's worse than that – we're on the road to even more frequent, more extreme events than we saw this year.
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