What Is Intelligence? Just a Byproduct of Cooperation.
Why have humans evolved into an intelligent species? The complexity of our social relationships, which require cooperation, naturally selects for higher cognitive processes.
What's the Latest Development?
By developing computer simulations of neural networks that evolved over 50,000 generations, scientists at Trinity University have concluded that intelligence is an evolutionary byproduct of social teamwork. Each neural network, or 'brain', took part in two social dilemmas in which "two players must choose between cooperation and defection during repeated rounds. Upon completion of either game, each 'brain' produced 'offspring' with other 'brains' that made more advantageous choices during the games. ... After 50,000 generations, the model showed that as cooperation increased, so did the intelligence of the programmed brains."
What's the Big Idea?
Evolutionary biologists have long been puzzled by the high levels of intelligence that are seen in humans and other animals like primates, dolphins and birds. Why does intelligence arise in some species and not others? "It has long been held that social interactions provide the selection pressures necessary for the evolution of advanced cognitive abilities, and in recent years, decision-making in the context of cooperative social interactions has been conjectured to be of particular importance." Given the complexity of our social relationships, those members of society with cognitive advantages are more likely to reproduce.
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Upstreamism advocate Rishi Manchanda calls us to understand health not as a "personal responsibility" but a "common good."
- Upstreamism tasks health care professionals to combat unhealthy social and cultural influences that exist outside — or upstream — of medical facilities.
- Patients from low-income neighborhoods are most at risk of negative health impacts.
- Thankfully, health care professionals are not alone. Upstreamism is increasingly part of our cultural consciousness.
No, depression is not just a type of 'affluenza' – poor people in conflict zones are more likely candidates
- Often seen as typical of rich societies, depression is actually more prevalent in poor, conflict-ridden countries
- More than one in five Afghans is clinically depressed – a sad world record
- But are North Koreans really the world's 'fourth least depressed' people?
America isn't immune to attempts to remove books from libraries and schools, here are ten frequent targets and why you ought to go check them out.
- Even in America, books are frequently challenged and removed from schools and public libraries.
- Every year, the American Library Association puts on Banned Books Week to draw attention to this fact.
- Some of the books they include on their list of most frequently challenged are some of the greatest, most beloved, and entertaining books there are.
- Oumuamua, a quarter-mile long asteroid tumbling through space, is Hawaiian for "scout", or "the first of many".
- It was given this name because it came from another solar system.
- Some claimed 'Oumuamua was an alien technology, but there's no actual evidence for that.
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