Urban Designers Ponder a Future Defined By Megacities
Half of the world's population could soon reside in concentrated metropolises of 10 million or more people. Some expect there to be up to forty of these megacities by 2025.
A megacity, as defined in this article on Wired, is an urban area with over 10 million inhabitants. There are, depending on which population numbers you trust, about 20-30 megacities on Earth today. By 2025, that figure is expected to rise to near 40. All told, about half of the planet's population could reside in megacities by 2030.
The Wired article highlights a new exhibit opening this week in New York at the Museum of Modern Art. The exhibit, titled Uneven Growth: Tactical Urbanisms for Growing Megacities, is composed of futurist designs for tackling the urban challenges involved with population growth. A particular focus is poverty.
From the Wired article:
“One number that isn’t referenced often is that two-thirds of that population will be poor,” says Pedro Gadanho, who curated Uneven Growth: Tactical Urbanisms for Growing Megacities at MoMA. That poverty translates into informal cities, like the favelas of Rio de Janeiro or illegally subdivided high-rises of Hong Kong.
Teams of urban planners visited several major metropolises -- New York, Hong Kong, Istanbul, Rio de Janeiro, Mumbai, and Lagos -- to inform their designs. For a slideshow of images from the exhibit, take a look at the Wired piece linked again below.
Read more at Wired
Photo credit: fuyu liu / Shutterstock
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It's one of the most consistent patterns in the unviverse. What causes it?
- Spinning discs are everywhere – just look at our solar system, the rings of Saturn, and all the spiral galaxies in the universe.
- Spinning discs are the result of two things: The force of gravity and a phenomenon in physics called the conservation of angular momentum.
- Gravity brings matter together; the closer the matter gets, the more it accelerates – much like an ice skater who spins faster and faster the closer their arms get to their body. Then, this spinning cloud collapses due to up and down and diagonal collisions that cancel each other out until the only motion they have in common is the spin – and voila: A flat disc.
It turns out, that tattoo ink can travel throughout your body and settle in lymph nodes.
In the slightly macabre experiment to find out where tattoo ink travels to in the body, French and German researchers recently used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence in four "inked" human cadavers — as well as one without. The results of their 2017 study? Some of the tattoo ink apparently settled in lymph nodes.
Image from the study.
As the authors explain in the study — they hail from Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, and the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment — it would have been unethical to test this on live animals since those creatures would not be able to give permission to be tattooed.
Because of the prevalence of tattoos these days, the researchers wanted to find out if the ink could be harmful in some way.
"The increasing prevalence of tattoos provoked safety concerns with respect to particle distribution and effects inside the human body," they write.
It works like this: Since lymph nodes filter lymph, which is the fluid that carries white blood cells throughout the body in an effort to fight infections that are encountered, that is where some of the ink particles collect.
Image by authors of the study.
Titanium dioxide appears to be the thing that travels. It's a white tattoo ink pigment that's mixed with other colors all the time to control shades.
The study's authors will keep working on this in the meantime.
“In future experiments we will also look into the pigment and heavy metal burden of other, more distant internal organs and tissues in order to track any possible bio-distribution of tattoo ink ingredients throughout the body. The outcome of these investigations not only will be helpful in the assessment of the health risks associated with tattooing but also in the judgment of other exposures such as, e.g., the entrance of TiO2 nanoparticles present in cosmetics at the site of damaged skin."
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