Reagan on the $50?

The Chicago Tribune disavows Illinois' own Ulysses S. Grant in an editorial arguing to replace the Civil War general and President's image on the fifty dollar bill with Ronald Reagan's.

The Chicago Tribune disavows Illinois' own Ulysses S. Grant in an editorial arguing to replace the Civil War general and President's image on the fifty dollar bill with Ronald Reagan's. "Most Americans seldom encounter a $50 bill, but that doesn't mean you can change it without stirring up controversy. A ruckus is sure to ensue if Congress moves to pass a bill introduced by Rep. Patrick McHenry, R-N.C., to replace the image of Ulysses S. Grant with one of Ronald Reagan. The Gipper is the most admired and accomplished Republican president of recent decades. Only Dwight Eisenhower comes close. But his low-tax, free-market, militarily assertive policies made him few friends among liberals. So enshrining him on the currency would not sit well with them. Nor would it please traditionalists who dislike any change in our money. But those are poor arguments against the change. Franklin Roosevelt was still intensely controversial when he was honored on the dime in 1946, less than a year after his death. More important is whether a president was significant enough to deserve such an honor, a judgment that requires the passage of time. More than 20 years after he left office, it's clear that Reagan was. Even Barack Obama, when he was running for president, said, 'I think Ronald Reagan changed the trajectory of America in a way that Richard Nixon did not and in a way that Bill Clinton did not. He put us on a fundamentally different path because the country was ready for it.'"

​There are two kinds of failure – but only one is honorable

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Scientists study tattooed corpses, find pigment in lymph nodes

It turns out, that tattoo ink can travel throughout your body and settle in lymph nodes.

17th August 1973: An American tattoo artist working on a client's shoulder. (Photo by F. Roy Kemp/BIPs/Getty Images)
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In the slightly macabre experiment to find out where tattoo ink travels to in the body, French and German researchers recently used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence in four "inked" human cadavers — as well as one without. The results of their 2017 study? Some of the tattoo ink apparently settled in lymph nodes.


Image from the study.

As the authors explain in the study — they hail from Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, and the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment — it would have been unethical to test this on live animals since those creatures would not be able to give permission to be tattooed.

Because of the prevalence of tattoos these days, the researchers wanted to find out if the ink could be harmful in some way.

"The increasing prevalence of tattoos provoked safety concerns with respect to particle distribution and effects inside the human body," they write.

It works like this: Since lymph nodes filter lymph, which is the fluid that carries white blood cells throughout the body in an effort to fight infections that are encountered, that is where some of the ink particles collect.

Image by authors of the study.

Titanium dioxide appears to be the thing that travels. It's a white tattoo ink pigment that's mixed with other colors all the time to control shades.

The study's authors will keep working on this in the meantime.

“In future experiments we will also look into the pigment and heavy metal burden of other, more distant internal organs and tissues in order to track any possible bio-distribution of tattoo ink ingredients throughout the body. The outcome of these investigations not only will be helpful in the assessment of the health risks associated with tattooing but also in the judgment of other exposures such as, e.g., the entrance of TiO2 nanoparticles present in cosmetics at the site of damaged skin."

Photo by Alina Grubnyak on Unsplash
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