Mouse ADHD Clue

A new study using mice has revealed that the root of psychiatric disorder attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) might be found in an overactive protein.

A new study using mice has revealed that the root of psychiatric disorder attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) might be found in an overactive protein which is responsible for regulating the dopaminergic pathways. Although ADHD is typically seen as a condition affecting teenagers, it also affects around 5% of adults, and this breakthrough could help scientists to progress with finding it’s as yet unknown cause. The discovery has been added to a growing body of evidence which suggests that dopamine, a neurotransmitter involved in the brain’s reward-motivation system, could trigger the disorder. "The genetically modified mice that we generated present interesting features such as hyperactivity and altered nesting capacities that might be related to attention deficit, and possibly altered impulsivity," Marc Flajolet, a senior research associate at the Rockefeller University which engaged in the research. "We believe that over expression of CK1δ [an enzyme called casein kinase] induces some developmental steps that resemble what might be happening in ADHD patients and therefore we propose that the CK1δ-overexpressing mice are a model for this disorder," says Flajolet. "It will be interesting to investigate if CK1 could be the origin of developmental defects in humans that lead to ADHD."

Why a great education means engaging with controversy

Jonathan Zimmerman explains why teachers should invite, not censor, tough classroom debates.

Sponsored by the Institute for Humane Studies
  • During times of war or national crisis in the U.S., school boards and officials are much more wary about allowing teachers and kids to say what they think.
  • If our teachers avoid controversial questions in the classroom, kids won't get the experience they need to know how to engage with difficult questions and with criticism.
  • Jonathan Zimmerman argues that controversial issues should be taught in schools as they naturally arise. Otherwise kids will learn from TV news what politics looks like – which is more often a rant than a healthy debate.
Keep reading Show less

Are these 100 people killing the planet?

Controversial map names CEOs of 100 companies producing 71 percent of the world's greenhouse gas emissions.

Image: Jordan Engel, reused via Decolonial Media License 0.1
Strange Maps
  • Just 100 companies produce 71 percent of the world's greenhouse gases.
  • This map lists their names and locations, and their CEOs.
  • The climate crisis may be too complex for these 100 people to solve, but naming and shaming them is a good start.
Keep reading Show less

SpaceX catches Falcon Heavy nosecone with net-outfitted boat

It marks another milestone in SpaceX's long-standing effort to make spaceflight cheaper.

Technology & Innovation
  • SpaceX launched Falcon Heavy into space early Tuesday morning.
  • A part of its nosecone – known as a fairing – descended back to Earth using special parachutes.
  • A net-outfitted boat in the Atlantic Ocean successfully caught the reusable fairing, likely saving the company millions of dollars.
Keep reading Show less