Motor Control in Tourettes Syndrome
People with Tourettes struggle with uncontrollable physical tics and verbal outbursts, but a new study reveals that they also have highly developed cognitive control over their reactions.
University of Nottingham's Stephen Jackson, who examined brain scans of people with Tourettes, says: "'The motor outputs of children with Tourettes syndrome are under greater cognitive control. You might view this as their being less likely to respond without thinking, or as being less reflexive.' This helps explain why some people may have many tics as children, but as adults have very few. Over time, their brains have developed ways to control these tics. Jackson points out that this may mean people with Tourettes need mental exercises rather than brain surgery or drugs, because their brains will naturally develop compensatory mechanisms.
Research in plant neurobiology shows that plants have senses, intelligence and emotions.
- The field of plant neurobiology studies the complex behavior of plants.
- Plants were found to have 15-20 senses, including many like humans.
- Some argue that plants may have awareness and intelligence, while detractors persist.
Most people think human extinction would be bad. These people aren't philosophers.
- A new opinion piece in The New York Times argues that humanity is so horrible to other forms of life that our extinction wouldn't be all that bad, morally speaking.
- The author, Dr. Todd May, is a philosopher who is known for advising the writers of The Good Place.
- The idea of human extinction is a big one, with lots of disagreement on its moral value.
Since the idea of locality is dead, space itself may not be an aloof vacuum: Something welds things together, even at great distances.
- Realists believe that there is an exactly understandable way the world is — one that describes processes independent of our intervention. Anti-realists, however, believe realism is too ambitious — too hard. They believe we pragmatically describe our interactions with nature — not truths that are independent of us.
- In nature, properties of Particle B may be depend on what we choose to measure or manipulate with Particle A, even at great distances.
- In quantum mechanics, there is no explanation for this. "It just comes out that way," says Smolin. Realists struggle with this because it would imply certain things can travel faster than light, which still seems improbable.