Human Resiliency and Trauma
The attacks of 9/11 changed not only how we engage with the world but what we know about it. In the last ten years, psychology has advanced in its understanding of trauma and resiliency.
What's the Latest Development?
Prior to the attacks on 9/11, the popular psychotherapeutic method for counseling individuals who had experienced a traumatic event was known as "debriefing". The technique which aimed to prevent the onset of post-traumatic stress disorder assumed that it was better for individuals to talk about what they had been through rather than bottling it up. But Harvard psychologist Richard McNally warned against the debriefing cure after 9/11 knowing "that research conducted during the 1990s had shown that debriefing was at best ineffective, and at worst actually slowed people’s recovery."
What's the Big Idea?
Psychology’s understanding of trauma and human resiliency became greatly informed by the attacks on 9/11. What McNally discovered in the aftermath of the attacks is that humans are more resilient to trauma than once thought. "They might be shaken, or upset, or scared right after something terrible happens, said Columbia University psychologist George Bonanno, who has conducted resilience research. 'But as far as trauma, most people are symptom-free....They are able to continue functioning without missing a beat.'" In the years since 9/11, debriefing has fallen out of favor.
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It's one of the most consistent patterns in the unviverse. What causes it?
- Spinning discs are everywhere – just look at our solar system, the rings of Saturn, and all the spiral galaxies in the universe.
- Spinning discs are the result of two things: The force of gravity and a phenomenon in physics called the conservation of angular momentum.
- Gravity brings matter together; the closer the matter gets, the more it accelerates – much like an ice skater who spins faster and faster the closer their arms get to their body. Then, this spinning cloud collapses due to up and down and diagonal collisions that cancel each other out until the only motion they have in common is the spin – and voila: A flat disc.
It turns out, that tattoo ink can travel throughout your body and settle in lymph nodes.
In the slightly macabre experiment to find out where tattoo ink travels to in the body, French and German researchers recently used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence in four "inked" human cadavers — as well as one without. The results of their 2017 study? Some of the tattoo ink apparently settled in lymph nodes.
Image from the study.
As the authors explain in the study — they hail from Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, and the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment — it would have been unethical to test this on live animals since those creatures would not be able to give permission to be tattooed.
Because of the prevalence of tattoos these days, the researchers wanted to find out if the ink could be harmful in some way.
"The increasing prevalence of tattoos provoked safety concerns with respect to particle distribution and effects inside the human body," they write.
It works like this: Since lymph nodes filter lymph, which is the fluid that carries white blood cells throughout the body in an effort to fight infections that are encountered, that is where some of the ink particles collect.
Image by authors of the study.
Titanium dioxide appears to be the thing that travels. It's a white tattoo ink pigment that's mixed with other colors all the time to control shades.
The study's authors will keep working on this in the meantime.
“In future experiments we will also look into the pigment and heavy metal burden of other, more distant internal organs and tissues in order to track any possible bio-distribution of tattoo ink ingredients throughout the body. The outcome of these investigations not only will be helpful in the assessment of the health risks associated with tattooing but also in the judgment of other exposures such as, e.g., the entrance of TiO2 nanoparticles present in cosmetics at the site of damaged skin."
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