How the First Black Holes Were Born
Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University have discovered that a steady diet of cold, fast food is what caused the rapid growth of early supermassive black holes at the dawn of the universe.
What's the Latest Development?
A powerful computer simulation has shown researchers that supermassive black holes, with masses billions of times greater than our sun, did exist at the dawn of the universe, while most others took over 13 billion years to develop. The explanation has to do with the feeding system of black holes: The thin stream of gas that contributes to a black hole's mass is typically heated up by surrounding gases, but this wasn't the case in the early universe. The formation of the earliest supermassive black holes relied on this diet of cold gas.
What's the Big Idea?
Cosmologists believe that supermassive black holes typically develop when two galaxies collide, merging the black holes at both their centers. But hundreds of millions of years after the big bang, matter was still so spread out that existing stars and galaxies were relatively small, which would imply that black holes were equally small. Now that scientists know how supermassive black holes formed, they may have an insight into how the first large galaxies were brought together, drawn in by the gravity of these first supermassives.
Photo credit: shutterstock.com
Former president of the ACLU Nadine Strossen discusses whether our society should always defend free speech rights, even for groups who would oppose such rights.
- Former ACLU president Nadine Strossen understands that protecting free speech rights isn't always a straightforward proposition.
- In this video, Strossen describes the reasoning behind why the ACLU defended the free speech rights of neo-Nazis in Skokie, Illinois, 1977.
- The opinions expressed in this video do not necessarily reflect the views of the Charles Koch Foundation, which encourages the expression of diverse viewpoints within a culture of civil discourse and mutual respect.
Going back to the moon will give us fresh insights about the creation of our solar system.
- July 2019 marks the 50th anniversary of the moon landing — Apollo 11.
- Today, we have a strong scientific case for returning to the moon: the original rock samples that we took from the moon revolutionized our view of how Earth and the solar system formed. We could now glean even more insights with fresh, nonchemically-altered samples.
- NASA plans to send humans to a crater in the South Pole of the moon because it's safer there, and would allow for better communications with people back on Earth.
Pugs and bulldogs are incredibly trendy, but experts have massive animal welfare concerns about these genetically manipulated breeds.
- Pugs, Frenchies, boxers, shih-tzus and other flat-faced dog breeds have been trending for at least the last decade.
- Higher visibility (usually in a celebrity's handbag), an increase in city living (smaller dogs for smaller homes), and possibly even the fine acting of Frank the Pug in 1997's Men in Black may be the cause.
- These small, specialty pure breeds are seen as the pinnacle of cuteness – they have friendly personalities, endearing odd looks, and are perfect for Stranger Things video montages.
Jokesters and serious Area 51 raiders would be met with military force.
- Facebook joke event to "raid Area 51" has already gained 1,000,000 "going" attendees.
- The U.S. Air Force has issued an official warning to potential "raiders."
- If anyone actually tries to storm an American military base, the use of deadly force is authorized.